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ianbobet tiPtieologkal i^eminatp 




ANDOVER-HARVARD THfiOLOGICAL UBRARY 



MDCCCCX 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 




J 



SHAKERS. 



COMPENDIUM 



OF THl 



OBIGIN, HISTOBY, PBIN0IPLE8, BULE8 AND BEOULATIOKS, 
OOYEBNMENT, AND DOCTBINES 



OF TUB 



UNITED SOCIETY OF BELIEVERS IN CHRIST'S 
SECOND APPEARING. 



WITH BIOGRAPHIES OF 

ANN LEE, 

WILLIAM LEE, JAB. WHITTAKEB, J. HOOENELL, J. MEAOHAM, 

AND LUCY WEIGHT. 



BY F. W. EVANS. 

*'0 my soul, swallow down understanding, and devonr wisdom; 
for thou hast only time to live." — ^Esdkas. 



NEW YORK: 

D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

846 & 848 BEOADWAY. 
1859. 






1 

i 

« 

t. 



TO THE READER. 



In respectful response to the often-ex- 
pressed desire of the public, to have the 
information respecting Shxxkers and Shah- 
erism^ that is now spread through some 
five or six volumes, concentrated in a Com- 
pendium, this work has been prepared by 
the author and compiler, in union with, 
and aided by, his Gospel friends. 

It being, as stated in all previous pub- 
lications by the Society, the settled faith 
of the Church, from the beginning, that 
its foundation was Divine Revelation ; 
and that the records of past Dispensations, 
and their revelations, can be understood 
and interpreted aright only by means of a 



IV TO THE UEADER. 



present living revelation / we therefore feel 
ourselves untrammeled by the letter of 
yesterday^ and write and express our views 
in accordance with the increasing light of 
to-day^ as we hope and trust, subject to the 
dictates of " the Comforter," or " Spirit 
of Truth," dwelling and abiding in the 
Churchy which is gradually, but surely and 
safely, leading it into the knowledge of 
" all truth:' For " in Christ are hid," as 
we fully believe, " all the treasures of wis- 
dom and knowledge." 

F. W. EVANS, \ 

CALVIN GREEN, > Committee of Revision. 
GILES AVERY. ) 
AuffvaAy 1858. 






INTRODUCTION. 



The United Society of Believers in Christ's 
Second Appearing, at this day, stand before the 
public in a very different attitude from what they 
have ever done at the time of issuing any of their 
previous publications. 

Many of the most obnoxious features of the So- 
ciety — such as drew down upon it the opposition 
and secret or open persecution, particularly of re- 
ligious professors — are now becoming the popular 
views of the times, at least of all the progressive 
minds of the age. 

Again. The ignorant or willful misconceptions 
of what were the actual doctrines, principles, and 
faith of the Society, are being corrected ; and the 
false judgings of certain discrepancies existing be- 
tween the profession and practice of the people, 
are almost entirely removed from the public mind. 



VI mXRODUOTION. 

It IS no longer believed that Ann Lee was a 
'^witchy^^ because she was known to possess super- 
natural powers ; or that the Shakers think her to 
be something more than human — equal to Christ ; 
or that they worship her, etc., etc. 

It is now generally known, that we do not con- 
demn the Marriage institution, in its own order j 
and when governed by its true laws/ but simply 
hold that it is not a Christian institution. 

The wonderful and almost incredible openings 
of light and truth pertaining to this and the exter- 
nal spiritual world, and which address themselves 
almost exclusively to the external man, by sensuous 
facts and physical demonstrations, and which, in 
former times and other ages, were suppressed and 
condemned, as the effect of unlawful communings 
with the powers of darkness, are now being re- 
ceived with joy and gladness by thousands of per- 
sons, as proof of a teUgraphio communication 
established between the two worlds ; and no more 
to be disputed or doubted than is the existence 
of that marvelous submarine telegraphic cahle that 
connects the Eastern and Western continents. 

In all these advances of the human mind in 
knowledge relating to the mundane and supermun- 
dane planes, we find cause for hope and encourage- 
ment that the time is drawing nigh when the 



INTBODUCnON. VU 

interior and truly apiritiuzl powers of the souls of 
our fellow- creatures will be awakened as from a 
long night of slumber, and when human hearts 
will be touched with the fire of conviction for sin, 
from the altar of religiovs truths quickening them 
into that affection for each other that shall burn up 
selfishness, and draw them, as with strong cords of 
love, into communities of brotherhood and sister- 
hood, not only under a Christian profession^ but 
also into a Christian practice — a Christian 
Church. 

All truths being primarily of Divine origin, is 
fit food for human souls when " rightly divided'' 
and properly used. The observation of natural 
facts and phenomena on the earth plane, and the 
orderly arrangement of such facts, together with 
the scientific deduction of general principles there- 
from, which can be applied to the use and benefit 
of mankind, are, in their place and order, right 
and good. 

With such knowledge we have no war ; for " we 
can do nothing against the truth, but for the 
truth." All truth, when t^Tiadulterated with hu- 
man pride and self, is a unit. And true earthly 
knowledge, talents, and capacities bear the same 
relation to the Divine revelation of spiritual good 
and truth that the vessels which the widow bor- 



Viii INTRODUCTION. 



rowed bore to her cruse of oil. There was no 
limit to the flow of the precious oil, except the 
number and size of the vessels that contained it. 

It is man's duty in this world to cultivate his 
natural powers and capacities, solely with reference 
to the rendering himself the better recipient of the 
truths of the higher spheres, and of the elements 
of eternal existence. The Divine revelations of 
former Dispensations were limited and molded by 
the knowledge of this natural world of the me- 
diums and people of those times. 

" Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the 
Egyptians ;" and their ideas of geology and astron- 
omy governed, in a measure, his account of the 
creation, though written by inspiration ; as was 
also that of the lengthening of the day when the 
" sun stood still upon the mount Gibeon, and the 
moon in the valley of Ajalon." 

Let us all, then, be diligent to add " to our faith 
virtue; and to virtue knowledge; and to knowl- 
edge temperance ; and to temperance patience ; 
and to patience godliness^ which is profitable unto 
all things, of the life that now is, and of that 
which is to come ;" and thus we shall abound in 
that true love to .God which results in loving our 
neighbor as we love ourselves. 



CONTENTS. 



Inteoduction 5 

Chafieb I. — Origin of the Society 11 

" II. — ^Rifie, Progress, and Present State of the 

Society 25 

" in. — Qualifications for Membership, and Rules and 

^ Regulations 42 

j^^i^lY. — Characteristics and Doctrines of Jesus Christ 56 
" V. — Character of the Primitive Christian Church. 65 

" VI.— Fall of the Primitive Christian Church 71 

*• Vn.— Rise of the "Two Witnesses" 78 

** Vm. — ^Character of the Church of Christ's Second 

Appearing ^. 86 

" IX.— Mode of Worship 90 

** X. — Doctrines of the Church of Christ's Second 
Appearing — 
Part I. — Mosaic Sabbaths, and Higher and 

Lower Law 94 

" II. — ^Probation, and Heavens and Hells. 98 



X CONTENTS. 

Paoi 

PabtIIL— God dt«rf— Father and Mother.. 103 



(i 



lY.— Judgment-day, and Confession 

of Sins 114 

" v.— The Bible 118 

Chaftbb XI. — ^Biographies of the Six Founders of the 

Shaker Society — Ann Lee 120 

" Xn.— WiUiam Lee 156 

** XIIL —James Whittaker 160 

" XrV.— John Hocknell 181 

*• XV. — Joseph Meacham and Lucy Wright 188 

List of Books published by the Society, and List of the 
Branches of the Society, with their Locations and 
Addresses 186, 188 



SHAKERS AND SHAKERISM. 



CHAPTER I. 

OBIGIN OP THE BOOIETY. 

1. Shakebism is claimed, by its advocates, to 
be the ultimate, or second ChHsticm^ ChxvrcK — 
the MiUemiium. 

2. The inquiry naturally arises, What elements 
produced the Shaker Societies? To meet this, 
reference must be had to historical facts bearing 
upon the subject. But let the following proposi- 
tion be first considered : namely, that at a given 
part, point, and time of every cycle of human 
affairs, in all ages, nations, and tribes, there have 
invariably arisen an order and people analogous (in 
some measure) to the American Shakers. No 
matter what the name by which history designates 



12 SHAKERS AND 8HAKEKI8M. 

them ; they are easily recognized by certain dis- 
tinguishing marks. 

3. China, Persia, India had their ascetics ; 
Rome, her sibyls and vestals ; Egypt, her Thera- 
peutics ; and Judea, the self-denying Essenes, among 
whom it is thought Jesus received his education 
and early training. Speaking of these, Philo says : 
" In many parts of the earth, such a people exist ; 
for it is -fitting that both Greek and Barbarian 
share in the absolute good." Pliny the Elder 
says : " The Essenes were a sort of people who 
lived without women and money." 

4. As the lowest types of humanity are those 
who seek happiness the most exclusively in the 
indulgence of the baser and animal propensities, 
so the saints of all times have moved the farthest 
in the opposite direction. Abstinence from sexual 
intercourse, from private property, from war, oaths, 
and the honors of the world, have ever been the 
chief characteristics of ascetics, in all ages. 

5. The principles and maxims of Jesus, a^s ex- 
plained and confirmed by his own teaching and prac- 
tice, and measurably by that of his first twelve 



ORIGIN OF THE SOCIETY. 13 

converts and most intimate friends, the Apostles, 
seem to give countenance to the idea, that some 
great and important truths underlie all these 
(often) abnormal operations of mind that, from 
age to age, were struggling for expression and em- 
bodiment in human action. 

6. The whole of human history is comprised 
within four large cycles, three of which are already 
past, and the fourth has commenced. Within 
these exist an almost infinity of smaller cycles, as 
was well and beautifully illustrated to the prophet 
Ezekiel, in a vision of a number of wheels revolv- 
ing within wheels. 

7. Every cycle of human history, whether on a 
low or high plane, or small or large scale, has its 
point of highest development : first, of the phys- 
ical y devoted to the supply of the mere animal or 
bodily wants: second, of the moral; which sub- 
serves a negative protective influence to the phys- 
ical : third, of the vnlellectfuM powers ; by which 
tools and machinery are created (constituting man 
a tool-making animal), which facilitate and increase 
the means of physical subsistence, and greatly en- 



14 SHAKEHS AND 8HAKEBI6M. 

hance the enjoyment of the moral faculties, on the 
one hand ; and, on the other, they prepare the soul 
for the opening of its spiritual capacities ; by which 
means an intelligent union and connection is formed 
and sustained between the visible and invisible 
earths, or worlds, and their respective inhabitants. 

8. All these, combined, form the basis of the 
final unfoldment of the last and highest property 
and faculty of the soul, viz., the religiov^. Con- 
sequently the quality and abstract truthfulness of 
the purest form of religion evolved in any given 
cycle, was determined by the time of day in the 
great year of progress, and the number and plane 
of the cycle. But, whether higher or lower, it 
was, in its degree, the witness of the Church of 
the future — a lively type of Shakerisniy the ulti- 
mate Christian, or Millennial^ Church, for the 
redemption of our race. 

9. Whenever, in a cycle, the culminating point 
of Spiritualism has been reached, then the religious 
element has moved thereupon, and finally ultimated 
itself in a Church, which was emphatically the 
Church of God of that cycle and period. 



O&IGIN OF THE SOOIETT. 15 

10. The flood of Noah was merely the greatest 
spiritual-physical manifestation of the cycle of that 
day. The building of the ark was the organiza- 
tion of the religious constructive elements that 
moved upon the spiritual. In the next great cycle 
the spiritual elements had, in Egypt, progressed 
and ripened up in the days of Moses. The ten 
plagues were ten spiritual-physical manifestations ; 
and Moses came off conqueror, in his contests with 
the Egyptian magicians (spiritual media), because 
he was vitalized by the religions or controlling ele- 
ment of that order. 

11. Under its influence, Moses organized the 
whole nation of the Hebrews into a highly spirit- 
ualized religious body, or Church ; the most per- 
fect that had ever been established upon earth, for 
the simple yet significant reason, that he liad been 
previously fully developed in all the preceding pre- 
paratory degrees of the cycle. He " was learned 
in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, and was 
mighty in word and deed," having been educated 
under the auspices of the royal family. 

12. The thwd great cycle culminated in Spirit- 



16 BHAKEBS AND SHAKEBISM. 

ualism, in the days of Jesus. That such is the 
fact, is abundantly proved by the testimony of pro- 
fane as well as sacred history. Dr. Lightfoot ob- 
serves : '^ Judea was so infested with spirits at 
that time, that thousands of persons were obsessed 
by them ; many of whom Jesus and his disciples 
released." Josephus, an eye-witness, relates, that 
sights, sounds, and voices were seen and heard by 
the whole city of Jerusalem. And, according to 
the Scriptural records, dumb animals were some- 
times taken possession of by spirits. 

13. Spiritual-physical manifestations attended 
the whole life of John and Jesus, from their con- 
ception to their death. The religious elements 
of that cycle were concentrated in Jesus, as an 
individual. At the day of Pentecost, the same 
elements concentred, and were organized in the 
most spiritually endowed body of people, or 
Church, that any cycle had ever been capable of 
producing. 

14. Jesus and his Apostles continually referred 
to the next, or fourth and last^ great cycle as the 
time for " tJie restitution of all things^ which God 



OIMGIN OF THE SOCIETY. 17 

had spoken by the mouth of all his prophets [in 
all nations and cycles] since the world began." 
It was at the spiritual acme of this cycle, that the 
Christ (whom John saw as a dove appear to Jesus) 
would come again^ to some other individual. This 
second coming^ the Shakers claim, must of neces- 
sity have been to a woman^ because the race is 
female as well as male. 

15. We will endeavor to show, in its right 
place, from proper historical data, that the rise of 
the Shaker Church, or order, has been agreeable 
to the premises above laid down ; as has also the 
formation of all the Shaker communities. 

16. Dr. Adam Clarke says : " Every dispensa- 
tion of God must begin in some one individual^ 
and at some particular time and place." That is 
correct. A true Church could have originated 
only by a new revelation from Grod to some one 
person; and then by that person reducing the 
truths and requirements thereof to practice. 

17. Shaker Societies always originate in the 
spiritual part of a cycle. There is, first, a gene- 
ral agitation of the spiritual elements ; out of that 

2 



18 SHAKERS AND SHAKEBIBM. 

arises a movement of the reUgioua elements in 
man. This leads to the formation of one or more 
Shaker Societies, according to the order of the 
cycle that is revolving. Therefore the Shakers 
now confidently expect the time has nearly arrived 
for a further extension of their order. 

18. The natural and spiritual worlds are now 
coming into a state of rapport with each other ; 
and the spiritual faculties in man, which have for 
a long time heen in a state of dormancy, are being 
aroused and developed very extensively ; and soon 
the religious nature of man will be quickened, and 
religious revivals will commence on a grander and 
more efiective scale than have ever been witnessed; 
for they will rest upon the basis of, and spread 
over the ground prepared by, SpvntualiBrri. 

19. In the beginning of the eighteenth century. 
Spiritualism broke out on the continent of Europe, 
and was followed by most remarkable religious re- 
vivals; out of which arose the "French prophets." 
These were wrought upon in a very extraordinary 
manner ; not only in their minds, but also in their 
physical systems. They had visions and trances. 



■^p-^ 



OBieiN OF THE SOCIETY. 19 

and were subject to violent agitations of bod}'. 
Men and women, and even little children, were so 
exercised, as that spectators were struck with 
great wonder and astonishment. Their powerful 
admonitions and prophetic warnings were heard 
and received with reverence and awe. 

20. They testified that the end of all things 
drew nigh ; and admonished the people to repent, 
and amend their lives. They gave warning of the 
near approach of the kingdom of heaven, the 
'' acceptable year of the Lord ;" and, in many 
prophetic messages, declared to the world, that 
those numerous Scripture prophecies concerning 
the new heaven and the new earth, the kingdom of 
the Messiah, the Marriage of the Lamb, the first 
resurrection, and the New Jerusalem descending 
from above, were near at hand, and would shortly 
be accomplished. 

21. They also testified, with great power and 
energy of spirit, against those false systems of re- 
ligion, and that antichristian dominion, which had 
borne such extensive sway among mankind ; and 
predicted their certain downfall and destruction. 



20 8HAKEKS AND SHAKERISM. 

They declared that, when all these false systems, 
of human invention, and all the deceitful and 
abominahle works of man, should be pulled down 
and destroyed, there would be but one Lord, one 
faith, one heart, and one voice among mankind; 
and that these things would be wrought by a spir- 
it/ual influence proceeding from living witnesses, 
who, by the inspiration of the Spirit, should be 
sent forth as laborers into the harvest field. 

22. They continued their prophetic warnings 
(under much persecution) for several years, over 
the greater part of Europe. And, in the year 
1706, the revival extended to England, where it 
spread far and wide. 

23. About the year 1747, some members of the 
Society of Quakers, who had become subjects of 
the revival, formed themselves into a society, of 
which Jane and James Wardley were the lead. 
Of this little society Ann Lee and her parents 
were members. They were all devoutly sipcere in 
the cause of God. James was gifted in public 
speaking. 

24. This infant society practiced no forms, and 



OKIGm OF THE SOCIETY. 21 

adopted no creeds, as rules of faith or worship ; 
but gave themselves up to be led and guided 
entirely by the operations of the Spirit of God. 
Their meetings were powerful and animated, and 
were attended with remarkable signs and opera- 
tions, and with the spirit of prophecy and Divine 
revelation. 

25. They boldly testified that the second ap- 
pearing of Christ was at hand ; and that the 
Church would rise in its full and transcendent 
glory, and effect the final downfall of antichrist. 
They affirmed that the work of the great day of 
God was then commencing, and would increase, 
until every promise of God should be fulfilled. 

26. Sometimes, after sitting awhile in silent med- 
itation, they were seized with a mighty trembling, 
under which they would often express the indigna- 
tion of God against all sin. At other times, they 
were exercised with singing, shouting, and leaping 
for joy, at the near prospect of salvation. They 
were often exercised with great agitation of body 
and limbs, shaking, running, and walking the floor, 
with a variety of other operations and signs, swift- 



22 SHAKEKS AND 8HAKEBI6M. 

Ij passing and repassing each other, like clouds 
agitated with a mighty wind. These exercises, so 
strange in the eyes of the beholders, brought upon 
them the appellation of Shakers^ which has been 
their most common name of distinction ever since. 

27- They were exposed to much opposition and 
persecution. Their houses were often beset by 
mobs, their windows broken, and their persons 
were shamefully abused. But they bore these 
things with great patience, and fearlessly continued 
their assemblies and their testimony. Their meet- 
ings, which began in Bolton, near Manchester, were 
afterward held alternately in Bolton and Manches- 
ter ; and occasionally at Chester, Mayortown, and 
some other places in the vicinity of Manchester. 

28. They continued to increase in light and 
power, with occasional additions to their number, 
till about the year 1770, when, by a special mani- 
festation of Divine light, the present testimony of 
salvation and eternal life was fully revealed to Ann 
Lee, and by her to the Society, by whom she, from 
that time, was acknowledged as Mother in Christ, 
and by them was called Mother Ann. 



OBiaiN OF THE SOdBTT. 23 

29. Mother Ann said: '^I saw in vision the 
Lord Jesus in his kingdom and glory. He re- 
vealed to me the depth of man's loss, what it was, 
and the way of redemption therefrom. Then I 
was able to bear an open testimony against the sin 
that is the root of all evil ; and I felt the power 
of God flow into my soul like a fountain of living 
water. From that day I have been able to take 
up a full cross against all the doleful works of the 
flesh.'' 

30. About the year 1774, Mother Ann received 
a revelation, directing her to rtpair to America; 
also that the second Christian Church would be 
established in America; that the Colonies would 
gain their independence ; and that liberty of con- 
science would be secured to all people, whereby 
they would be' able to worship God without hin- 
drance or molestation. 

31. This revelation was communicated to the 
Society, and was confirmed by numerous signs, 
visions, and extraordinary manifestations, to many 
of the members ; and permission was given for all 
those of the Society who were able, and who felt 



24: SHAKEKS AND SHAKEBIBM. 

any special impressions on their own minds so to 
do, to accompany her. 

32. Those who became the companions of 
Mother Ann, in her voyage to America, were: 
Abraham Stanley (her husband), Wm. Lee (her 
brother), James Whittaker, John Hocknell, Rich- 
ard Hocknell (son of John), James Shepherd, Mary 
Partington, and Nancy Lee (a niece of Mother 
Ann). Having settled their affairs and made 
arrangements for the voyage, they embarked at 
Liverpool, and set sail on the 19th of May, 1774, 
and debarked on the 6th of August following, at 
New York, 

83. Arrived in America, they settled in the 
woods, seven miles from Albany, w^here is now 
located the village of Watervliet. Here, sur- 
rounded by Dutch settlers, they resided three 
years and a half, waiting for the fulfillment of 
Mother Ann's prophecy — the gathering of persons 
to the Gospel of Chrisfs second appearing^ of 
which she was the Messenger. 



J 



CHAPTER II. 

EISE, PROGRESS, AND PRESENT STATE OF THE 

SOCIETY. 

1. Community of goods has never been so suc- 
cessfully accomplished as by the Shakers. We 
propose, therefore, first to take a view of them 
from that stand-point. 

2. Shakerism as a system is more varied in its 
elements, and complex* and expansive in its char- 
acter, than is any other purely religious system 
within our knowledge, and of course its adherents 
esteem it as the most perfect and comprehensive ; 
urging as a reason, that it takes possession and 
entire cognizance of the whole man / and, instead 
of attending Boldy to his spiritiM^ necessities for 

« Complex, in the sense of a large *' assemblage*' of ideas, 
or **coUection" of elements of truth, ^^ twisted'* cr "wove" 
together into a unitary system. — Webstbb 



26 SHAKEBS Aim SHAKEBBSM. 

only one day in seven, it cares for and supplies, 
all his tenyporal as well as ypiritital wants seven 
days in, the week. 

3. The physical (not the mere ammal) and 
moral, and the intellectual and affectional nature 
and faculties, together with the spiritual as the 
ruling and goyerning element, are all to be fully 
developed and pre-eminently satisfied by the utti- 
mate operation of this system, according to the 
faith and confident expectation of its votaries. 

4. In 1779, a very singular and strange revival 
of religion occurred in the town of New Lebanon, 
N. Y., and the surrounding country. The people 
were powerfully and wonderfully exercised in body 
and soul* Professors of religion who had been 
the most exemplary and strict in the observance of 
every means of grace, began to doubt the founda- 
tion upon which they had built their hopes of 
salvation. 

5. Some had visions and prophecies that the day 
of judgment and redemption was at hand, and that 
the second coming of Christ was nigh — even at the 
door. In their meetings were heard loud cries for 



ITS BI6E, PSOGBESS, AND PBESENT STATE. 27 

the kingdom to come, and a powerful testimony 
against all sin ; and the various exercises and gifts 
of the Spirit gave convincing evidence of its being 
a genuine work of God. 

6. Some, under a deep conviction of their sins, 
' cried for mercy ; others felt unspeakably happy in 

the joyful visions and revelations of the glory of 
the latter day, and of the commencement of the 
kindgom of Christ upon earth, which was to put 
an end to wars and fightings, and all manner of 
violence, restore peace on earth, make an end of 
sin, bring in everlasting righteousness, and gather 
the saints into one harmonious communion. 

7. The work was powerful and swift, but of 
short duration. In a few months their visions and 
prophecies ceased, the extraordinary power of their 
testimony seemed to be at an end, and none of 
those things of which they had testified appeared. 
In this situation they were filled with deep distress 
and anxiety of mind, but still retained their con- 
fidence in the near approach of Christ's kingdom, 
and continued their assemblies with earnest prayer 
and exboriations, encouraging one another to main- 



28 6HAKEBS AKD 6HAKEBI6H. 

tain their faith and hope, to wait with patience, 
and to " pray and not faint." 

8. This was the state of the people in the spring 
of 1780, when some of them visited Mother Ann 
and her little family, and were soon convinced that 
they were in the very work for which themselves 
had been so earnestly praying, and for which they 
had been looking and waiting with such ardent ex- 
pectations. 

9. Attracted by the reports of these, others 
were induced to visit them ; and the fame of these 
strange people, who lived in this obscure corner 
of the wilderness, extended far and wide. Many 
from New Lebanon and the country round resorted 
to them ; and when they heard the new and living 
testimony, and saw the various and extraordinary 
operations of Divine power among them, they were 
fully confirmed in the belief that Christ had in 
very deed appeared again on earth, and many of 
them (of various denominations) embraced the faith 
of the Society. 

10. Such were some of the preliminary spiritual 
and religious operations that preceded the organiza- 



ITS RISE, PROGRESS, AND PRESENT STATE. 29 

tion of the Shaker Society at New Lebanon, and are 
a fair specimen of the manner in which all the suc- 
ceeding societies originated and have been founded. 

11. About the beginning of the present century, 
another extraordinary revival of religion, known as 
the " Kentucky Remval^^ commenced in the 
Western States. This work was also very swift 
and powerful, and gave such evident proofs of 
supernatural power, that it excited the attention 
of all classes of persons, and for a season bore 
down all opposition. The very astonishing out- 
ward operations that attended that work are 
widely published, and have been the subjects of 
close and serious investigation. 

12. Besides the wonderful operations of spirit- 
ual power upon their bodies, the subjects of this 
work were greatly exercised in dreams, visions, 
revelations, and the spirit of prophecy. In these 
gifts of the Spirit they saw and testified that the 
great day of God was at hand, that Christ was 
about to set up his kingdom on earth, and that 
this very work would terminate in the full mani- 
festation of the latter day of glory. 



30 SHAKERS AND SHAKEBISM. 

13. This spiritual manifestation extended through 
several of the Western States, and continued, with 
increasing light and power, for about four years. 
During the latter part of the year 1804, many of 
its subjects were powerfully impressed with a be- 
lief that another summer would not pass away 
without realizing a full display of that great salva- 
tion from all sin for which they had been so long 
and earnestly praying. 

14. The Believers in the Eastern States received 
repeated intelligenfee of this work through the pub- 
lic papers; and, well remembering the prophecy 
of Mother Ann, that the next opening of the Gos- 
pel would be in the West, they began to look for 
its speedy fulfillment. This prophecy had often 
been spoken of while that country was the theater 
of Indian wars, and it appeared that its fulfillment 
was near at hand. Accordingly, the next year, 
the Church at New Lebanon sent three mission- 
aries to them. 

15. Without any previous acquaintance in that 
country, or any correspondence with any of its 
inhabitants, these messengers, on the first of Janu- 



ITS BI8E, PBOGBESS, AND PBBSEKT STATE. 31 

ary, 1805, set out on a pedestrian journey of more 
than a thousand miles. They arrived in Kentucky 
about the first of March. They then went to a 
number of places where the spirit of the revival 
had prevailed, and conversed with many who had 
been the subjects thereof ; and having, with some 
freedom, declared the object of their mission, they 
passed over into the State of Ohio. After visiting 
and conversing with some of the subjects of the 
revival in Springfield, they proceeded on to Turtle 
Creek, near Lebanon, in the county of Warren, 
whither they arrived on the 22d of March. 

16. They were spiritually led to the house of 
Malcham Worley, a man of respectable character, 
handsome fortune, liberal education, and who had 
been a leading character in the revival. Here 
they felt free to declare their mission, and to open 
their testimony in full, which Malcham received 
with great joy, and declared to them that it was 
the very work that, by the spirit of prophecy, he, 
had been taught to look for. 

17. This man had very frequently testified, by 
the Spirit, that the work of the latter day which 



32 SHAKERS AHD SHAKERISM. 

would usher in the kingdom of Christ in that 
country would commence at that place, which was 
situated between the two Miama rivers, near Turtle 
Creek ; and there the work did commence, and he 
and his family were the first to embrace it. From 
thence it spread, and was cordially received by 
many of the subjects of the revival in that vicin- 
ity, and in a short time it had an extensive circu- 
lation through that part of the State, and soon 
afterward it extended into Kentucky and Indiana, 
and was joyfully received by many. 

18. The testimony mostly prevailed in the States 
of Ohio and Kentucky, where societies are now 
established. Many persons from other States, 
having received the testimony, have become mem- 
bers. 

19. In the State of Ohio there are fowr socie- 
eties — one at Union Village, about four miles west 
from Lebanon, and about 30 miles north-by-east 
from Cincinnati, Warren County. This is the 
oldest and largest society in the Western States, 
and contains about 500 members. The second 
Society is at Watervliet, on Beaver Creek, about 



rrs KISE, PROGRKSS, AKD PRKBENT STATE. 33 

22 miles north from Union Village, and six south- 
east from Dayton, in Montgomery County, and 
contains aboiit 100 members. 

20. The third Society is at Whitewater, 22 
miles northwest from Cincinnati, Hamilton County, 
and contains about 200 members. The fourth 
Society is at North Union, about eight miles north- 
east from Cleveland, and contains about 200 mem- 
bers. 

21. In the State of Kentucky there are two 
societies — one at Pleasant Hill, about seven miles 
easterly from Harrodsburg, and 21 miles south- 
west from Lexington, Mercer County, which con- 
tains between four and five hundred members, 
The other is at South Union, Jasper Springs, 
about 15 miles northeast from Russellville, Logan 
County, and contains between three and four hun- 
dred members. 

22. There are 18 Shaker Societies, all holding 
property in common. Yet this does not repre- 
sent the actual number of their community organ- 
izations, from the fact, not generally known, that 

each society is constituted of several distinct fami- 

8 



84 BHAKEB8 A^D SUAKEBISM. 

lies, or communities, which are self-supporting, and 
possess within themselves perfect organizations in 
both temporal and spiritual matters, regularly offi- 
cered, comprising elders, deacons, care-takers, etc., 
of both the male VinA female order, agreeably to the 
unique custom of this singular people, who, although 
regarded by the world as almost misogynists (wo- 
man-haters), have been the first to disenthrall wo- 
man from the condition of vassalage to which all 
other religious systems (more or less) consign her, 
and to secure to her those just and equal rights 
with man that, by her similarity to him in organ- 
ization and faculties, both God and nature would 
seem to demand, inasmuch as the sisterhood is 
officered and governed throughout by members of 
their own sex, 

23. The Society of New Lebanon possesses 
eight of these families, or communities. 

24. The Shaker Societies have not yet extended 
beyond the boundaries of the " Model Republic ;" 
which is accounted for by the Shakers themselves 
thus : — They say their religion can not exist and 
flourish except under such governments as secure 



ITS BIS£, PB0GBES8, AND PRE8SNT STATE. 85 

freedom of person, freedom of speech and of the 
press, liberty of conscience, and perfect separation 
between church and state. 

25. In the public mind an unusual amount of 
interest attaches to these organizations, from the 
consideration that among the tens of thousands, in 
both Europe and America, who (theoretically) as 
fully indorse the principle of oommmii(/y of gooda^ 
and approve the abnegation of the private, selfish 
property principle, as do the ^^ American Shakers" 
themselves ; yet hitherto no attempts to found and 
perpetuate a community of interest and of goods, 
and to reconstruct society upon this basis, have 
proved really successful, except when made under 
the auspices of, and in accordance with, the pecu- 
liar religious requirements of all the combined ele- 
ments of Shdkerism. 

26. ^^ The full tide of their successful experi- 
ments" has already extended itself over seventy 
years, without a single failure ; while the followers 
of Owen and Fourier have established communities 
only to awaken hopes that were doomed to be frus- 
trated by their early dissolution ; and if any yet 



36 SHAKEB6 AND SliAKIilllSM. 

remaio, they give marked iDdications of the wind- 
ing up of their affairs at no distant period in the 
future. 

. 27. The oldest and largest Shaker Society is at 
N&m Leianon, two miles and a half from Lebanon 
Springs, and 25 miles southeast of Albany, Colum* 
bia County, N. Y. It contains about 600 members. 

28. There is also a society at each of the fol- 
lowing places, namely : 

Watervliet^ about seven miles northwest of 
Albany, N. Y. Members, upward of 300. 

Grovelandy Livingston County, N. Y., about 
four miles south of Mount Morris. Members, 
about 150. 

Hancock^ three miles from New Lebanon, and 
five from Pittsfield, Berkshire County, Mass. 
Members, between two and three hundred. 

Tyringhaniy 16 miles from Hancock, same 
county and State. Members, about 100. 

Enjieldj Hartford County, Conn. Members, 
about 200. 

Harvardy Worcester County, Mass. Members, 
about 200. 



ITS BISE, PBOOaESS, AND FJKLSENT STATE. 37 

Shirley^ Middlesex County, Mass. Members, 
about 100. 

Ccmterbury^ Merrimack County, N. H. (near 
Concord). Members, about 800. 

Enfield^ Grafton County, N", H. Members, 
about 300. 

Alfred^ York County, Maine. Members, about 
160. 

New OUmcester^ Cumberland County, Maine. 
Members, about 100. 

29. These societies were all formed within a 
period of five years — from 1787 to 1792 — and no 
others were formed until 1805. 

30. At the commencement of the year 1780, 
the whole number of Shakers was only about ten 
or twelve persons, all of whom came from England. 
In the spring of that year the American converts 
began to gather to them, and a gradual accession 
to their numbers continued until about the year 
1785. In 1787, under the superintendence of Jo- 
seph Meacham (formerly a Baptist preacher), the 
people collected together at New Lebanon, and 
were organized into a community, or church, which 



38 flHAKKRS AND SHAKERIS^I. 

ia the pattern and center of union to all the soci- 
eties, or branches, connected therewith. 

81. At that time many of the people were poor 
in this world's goods, and in debt, and some of 
them lived in log-houses on the side of the mount- 
ain, where now the village of New Lebanon is 
located. 

32. The different communities, or fwmUiea^ in 
each society number from 30 to 150 members, of 
both sexes, who generally occupy one large unitary 
dwelling-house, in which the brethren and sisters 
live together in a spiritual order and social rela- 
tion, which is the most perfectly represented by a 
house or family where the parents have numerous 
sons and daughters. 

38. The fact that, in all civilized countries, 
families are iM>t expected to form any other than a 
brotherly and sisterly union, and which may never, 
however indirectly, tend toward an ineestuotis con- 
jugal relation, does not prevent their enjoyment of 
social, friendly intercourse, and a daily interchange 
of kind offices with each other, there being other 
planes besides the procreative for the action of the 



ITS BISE, PSO0BES3, AKD PBESEKT STATE. 39 

affectional nature in males and females, even in 
the order of natural generation. 

34. The Shakers testify that they, as a people, 
find more pleasure and enjoymen^t — real good — 
arising from the celibate spiritual union of the 
sexes, and more of an cibsence of the afflictions 
and annoyances — recU evil — arising from the gene- 
rative union of the sexes, than, as they believe, is 
ever experienced in the order of the world. 

85. The apartments of the brethren and sisters 
are usually at the opposite sides or ends of the 
house, which is divided by spacious halls. From 
two to six live in a room. They all eat at the 
same time, in a large dining-room, at different tables. 

36. Each dwelling-house contains a large meet- 
ing room, sufficiently spacious to accommodate all 
the members of the family, in which they assemble 
several times a week for worship; and twice or 
thrice a week they have union meetings in their 
private rooms, where from fpur to eight or ten 
brethren and sisters spend an hour, sitting to- 
gether in social conversation, singing, etc. 

37. There are also large buildings, containing 



40 SHAKEBS AND SHAKESXSM. 

numerous workshops, connected with each family; 
one for brethren, the other for sisters. In these, 
various branches of manufacture are carried on, 
consisting of necessary articles for home consump- 
tion and for sale. They have all the mechanical 
trades necessary to meet the wants of a family. 
Hitherto, horticulture has been the leading busi- 
ness in many of the societies, but they are now 
turning their attention considerably to agricultu/re. 

38. The Society at New Lebanon oWns about 
6,000 acres of land, a large proportion of which is 
devoted to fuel, timber, and sheep, it being very 
mountainous and rocky. The largest part is in 
the State of Massachusetts. The proportion of 
land is about ten acres to each individual. Other 
societies do not vary much from the same ratio. 

39. It is now some ten years since the eighteen 
societies discontinued the use of swine as food. 
Alcoholic preparations are not drank or used, ex- 
cept under medical advisement. With the Shak- 
ers the objects of dress are modesty, health, and 
comfort ; and unless one or other of these objects 
can be promoted, they never change their fashion. 



ITS BISE, PBOGRESS, AND PBESENT STATE. 41 

40. Entire sexual purity, temperance in food 
and in all other things, plainness and simplicity of 
dress, neatness, industry, peace, charity to the 
poor, and a prudent, saying economy in all tempo- 
ral things, are among the virtues inculcated and 
practiced by the various fraternities of Shakers, 
wherever located; all of which greatly tend to 
promote the physical health and material prosper- 
ity of these united societies, and to insure the 
good-will of their fellow-creatures, and the blessing 
of Divine Providence upon all their labors. 



CHAPTER III. 

QUAUFICATIOKS FOB MEMBERSHIP, AND BULES AND 

BEGULATIONS. 

1. A coNYEBT to the faith of Shakefmm^ who 
wishes to become a Covenant member, is required 
to pay all his just debts, to discharge all legal ob- 
ligations upon him, and, if possible, to make resti- 
tution for all the wrongs committed against any 
of his fellow-creatures. A full dedication and con- 
secration of person and property is granted only as 
a special privilege to such as have been the most 
faithful to comply with the terms of probation. 
Nor is any property required as a requisite for ad- 
mission. 

2. No flattery, or any undue influence, is ever 
used to draw parties into a oneness of temporal 
interest, as this can be permanently satisfactory 



QUALIFICATIONS FOR MEMBERSHIP. 48 

only when it is a voluntary act understandingly 
performed. Hence the most plain and explicit 
statements are always laid before the inquirer, so 
that the whole ground may be fully comprehended 
by the candidate for admission ; for no act of 
service is considered by this people to be accept- 
able to God, except it flows from the free, volun- 
tary emotions of the heart. And let the reader 
bear in mind that all Shaker communities are 
essentially religicym institutions. 

8. No believing husband or wife is allowed to 
separate from an unbelieving wife or husband, ex- 
cept legally, or by mutual agreement. Nor can 
any person who has abandoned his or her partner, 
without just and lawful cause, be received into 
communion with the Society ; and in case of sepa- 
ration between husband and wife, the latter must 
have a just and righteous share of all property in 
their possession. Nor are parents allowed to di- 
vide their property unequally among their children, 
whether they be in or out of the Society. 

4. The Society is not responsible for debts con- 
tracted by persons previous to their becoming 



44 SHAKERS AND 8HAKSBISM. 

members ; and it is expressly contrary to the 
established principles of the Society for any of its 
officers, agents, or Covenant members' to contract 
debts, either on behalf of the Society or of them- 
selves individually. All the consecrated property 
of the Society is held in trust by trustees belong- 
ing to each community. 

5. As industry, temperance, and frugality are 
cardinal virtues, all (without exception, if able) are 
employed in manual labor. 

6. The government of the Society is adapted to 
the several orders of which it is composed ; and, 
not being founded upon force and fraud, as a late 
Austrian minister of state, Metternich, is reported 
to have declared all human governments to be, it 
addresses itself to man's moral and affectional 
nature. All power and authority under it grow 
out of the mutual faith, love, and confidence of all 
its members. It is these that give effective force 
and power to the principles, laws, rules, and regu- 
lations of the Society ; and no person who becomes 
permanently dissatisfied is ever desired to remain 
in the Society. 



BULBS AKD BEOULATIONS. 45 

7- The societies are divided into different orders, 
or cl(ZS8es, commonly called families* 

8. The first, or novitiate class, are those who 
receive faith and come into a degree of relation 
with the Society, but choose to live in their own 
families and manage their own temporal concerns. 
Any such who choose may live in that manner, 
and be owned as brethren and sisters in the Gros- 
pel, so long as they live up to its requirements. 

9. Parents are required to be kind and dutiful 
to each other ; to shun every appearance of evil ; 
to provide for their family ; to bring up their chil- 
dren in a godly manner ; and to use, improve, and 
dispose of their property wisely ; but may manage 
their own affairs according to their own discretion. 
They may continue thus as long as it comports 
with their faith, circumstances, and spiritual im- 
provement. 

10. They are, however, required to bear in mind 
the necessity and importance of a spiritual increase, 
without which they will be ever exposed to fall 
back into the spirit and course of the world ; for 
they can no longer hold their connection with the 



46 BHAKEBS AJKTD SHAKEBISM. 

Society than they continue to conform to its faith 
and principles. Such persons are admitted to all 
the privileges of religious worship and spiritual 
communion in the novitiate order, and receive in- 
struction and counsel, according to their needs, 
whenever they feel it necessary to apply for it; 
and are not debarred from any privilege of which 
their choice, local situation, and circumstances 
will admit. 

11. Members of this class are not controlled by 
the Society, with regard to either their property, 
families, or children, but can act as freely in all 
these respects as do the members of any other re- 
ligious society, and yet enjoy all their spiritual 
privileges, and retain their union with the Society, 
provided they do not violate the faith and the 
moral and religious principles of the institution. 

12. No children are ever taken under the imme- 
diate charge of the Society, except by the request 
or free consent of those who have the lawful right 
and control of them, together with the child's own 
consent. Children thus received are treated with 
great care and tenderness. The government exer- 



KULE8 AND-REGULATIONS. 47 

cised over them is mild, gentle, and beneficent, 
which usually excites in them feelings of affection 
towards one another, and confidence and respect to- 
wards their care-takers and teachers, which gene- 
rally produces a willing obedience in whatever is 
required of them. The practical exercise of mild- 
ness and gentleness of manners is early and sedu- 
lously cultiyated. 

13. Children are early led into the knowledge of 
the sacred Scriptures, instructed in their hist-ory, 
and practically taught the divine precepts contained 
in them, particularly those of Jesus Christ and 
his Apostles. They are also brought up to some 
manual occupation suited to their capacities, by 
which to be Enabled to obtain a livelihood, whether 
they remain with the Society or not. 

14. Of Shaker soJwola^ we will simply give an 
extract from the ^' Report of the Select Committee 
of the Legislative Assembly of the State of New 
York, April 2d, 1849 :"— 

" On examining the schools at Watervliet (a fair 
specimen of those in the other societies), a 
model worthy the imitation of the best soci- 



48 SHAKEBS AND 8HAKEBI8M. 

etj was presented. A full and excellent 
library of the most approved books was foand, 
and a thorough education for the business 
man is there imparted, by teachers who are 
competent for the task. The scholars, both 
male and female, seemed highly pleased with 
their situation, and were in the apparent en- 
joyment of all the pleasures of youthful life." 
15. The second, or Junior Class^ is composed 
of persons who, not having the charge of families, 
and being under no embarrassments to hinder them 
from uniting in community order, choose to enjoy 
the benefits of that situation. These enter into a 
contract to devote their services freely to support 
the interest of the family of which they may be 
members, so long as they shall continue in that 
order, at the same time stipulating to claim no pe- 
cuniary compensation for their services. Every 
member of such family is benefited by the united 
interest and labors of the whole family, so long as 
they continuJd to support the order thereof, and is 
amply provided for in health, sickness, and old 
age. 



BULKS Als^D REGULATIONS. 49 

16. Members of this class have the privilege, at 
their option, of freely giving the improvement of 
any part, or all, of their property, to be used for 
the mutual benefit of the family to which they be- 
long. The property itself may be resumed at any 
time, according to the contract, but no interest can 
be claimed for the use thereof ; nor can any mem- 
ber of the family be employed therein for wages 
of any kind. 

17. Members of this class may retain the law- 
ful ownership of all their own property as long as 
they think proper ; and at any time, after having 
gained sufficient experience to be able to act delib- 
erately and understandingly, they may, if they 
choose, dedicate and devote a part or the whole, 
and consecrate it forever to the support of the 
institution. This, however, is a matter oi free 
choice. 

18. The third, or Senior Cldss^ is composed of 
such persons as have had sufficient time and oppor- 
tunity practically to prove the faith and manner of 
life of the Society, and who are prepared to enter 

freely, fully, and voluntarily into a united and conse- 

4 



50 SHAKEBS AND SHAKEBISM. 

crated interest. These covenant and agree to de- 
vote themselves and services, with all they possess, 
to the service of God, and the support of the Gospel, 
forever, solemnly promising never to bring debt or 
damage, claim or demand, against the Society, or 
against any member thereof, for any property or 
service they may thus have devoted to the uses 
and purposes of the institution. This class con- 
stitutes what is denominated Church Order, 

19. To enter fully into this order is considered 
a matter of the utmost importance to the parties 
concerned, and therefore requires the most mature 
and deliberate consideration ; for, after having made 
such a dedication, according to the laws of justice 
and equity, there can be no ground for retraction ; 
nor can any one, by those laws, recover anything 
thus dedicated. Of this all are fully apprised be- 
fore they enter into the order. Yet should any 
afterwards withdraw from the Society, the trustees 
have discretionary power to give them what may 
be thought reasonable. No person who withdraws 
peaceably is ever sent away empty. 

20. During a period of seventy years, since the 



RULES AND BEGULATI0N8. 61 

permanent establishment of the Society at New 
Lebanon and Watervliet, there has never been a 
legal claim entered by any person for the recovery 
of property brought into the Society. 

21. The members of this order are all entitled 
to equal benefits and privileges, and no difference 
is ever made on account of the property any indi- 
vidual may have contributed. 

22. The following extract fr6m a charge to a 
jury, delivered by the Hon. John Breathitt, of 
Kentucky, shows the light in which the " Cove- 
nant'' of the Senior Order has been viewed in a 
court of justice : 

" And is it matter of objection against any man 
that his motives are so pure and disinterested 
that he desires to be released from earthly 
thraldom, that he may fix all his thoughts and 
affections on his God 1 After they have signed 
the Covenant, they are relieved from earthly 
care. 

" I repeat it : That individual who is prepared 
to sign the Church Covenant stands in an 
enviable situation. His situation, indeed, is 



52 SHAKERS AND SHAEIEBISM. 

an enviable one, who, devoted to his God, is 
prepared to say of his property, Here it is, 
little or much, take it, and leave me unmo- 
lested to commune with my God. Indeed, I 
dedicate myself to — what ? — not to a fanatical 
tenet! — no! to a subject far beyond — to the 
worship of Almighty God, the great Creator 
and Governor of the universe. Under the 
influence of his love I give my all : only let 
me worship according to my faith and in a 
manner I believe to be acceptable to my God. 
" I say again : The world can not produce a par- 
allel to the situation which such a man ex- 
hibits — ^resigned to the will of Heaven, free 
from all the feelings of earthly desire, and 
quietly pursuing the even tenor of his way." 

23. We believe the history of the world does 
not furnish a single instance of any other religious 
institution having stood 70 years without' a visible 
declension of its principles and order, and in the 
general purity and integrity of its members. 

24. An institution with a united interest in all 
things has been a desideratum of the world for 



KULK8 AND REGCLATIONB. 53 

many ages; and although attempts to establish 
such have been made in various ages and countries, 
apparently under favorable circumstances and well- 
adapted plans, yet they have as often failed ; while 
the central society of this community has stood 
upon the ground of a united and consecrated inter- 
est, and maintained the institution of equal rights 
and privileges in all things, both spiritual and 
temporal, for more than 70 years, without the least 
appearance of failure in either the parent Society, 
or any of its branches. 

25. Tr^ZW^/?/i^^^eZ jprwctpZtf*, that are per- 
fectly understood and cordially received by all the 
members, constitute the foundation of the Shaker 
government, 

26. Growth is secured and progress effected by 
a continual influx of light and love from the Foun- 
tain — Ood — by means of Divine revelation through 
spirits. The rulers are but the executive of the 
principles above referred to, and of the laws de- 
duced therefrom. Their means, and the object, 
of government consist in bringing the principles, 
80 approved to bear upon the consciences and 



54 SHAKESS AND SHAEJ^BISH. 

aflfections of the ruled. To this end the male 
and female elements are equally balanced in the 
leaders. The former has reference to, and 
operates more specifically upon, the rational fac- 
ulty in human nature ; the latter^ to the affeo- 
tional. 

27. The Ministry, who are the central execu- 
tive of the whole order, consists of two brethren 
and two sisters, and every regularly organized com- 
munity or family in a society has two dder breth- 
ren and two elder sisters, who have the charge of 
the spiritual affairs ; also, two deacons and two 
deaconesses, who have the care of the temporalis 
ties. All other positions of care and trust are 
filled after the same dual order. Yet each sex 
continues in its own appropriate sphere of action 
in all respects, there being a proper subordination, 
deference, and respect of the female to the male, in 
his ord^r^ and of the male to the female, in her 
order J so that in any of these communities the 
zealouo advocates of " Woman's Rights" may here 
find a practical realization of their ideal. 

28. To the mind of the simple, unsophisticated 



RULES AXD REGULATIONS. 56 

Shaker it seems marvelously inconsistent for any 
human government to be administered for the sole 
benefit of its own officers and their particular 
friends and favorites ; or that more than one half 
the citizens should be disfranchised because they 
happen to be females^ and compelled by the sword 
to obey laws they never sanctioned, and ofttimes in 
which they have no faith, and to submit to taxa- 
tion where there has been no previous representa- 
tion; while still millions of other fellow-citizens 
are treated as property^ because they chance to 
possess a darker- colored skin than their cruel 
brethren. And again, that the members {brethren 
a/nd sisters) of the same religious body or church 
should be divided into rich and poor in the things 
of this temporary world, but who are vainly ex- 
pecting that, in the world to come, they shall be 
willing to have eternal things in common! 

29. And when this same unjust and unequal ad- 
ministration is confirmed and carried out in the 
most popular religious organizations of Christen- 
dom, the Shakers think the climax of absurdity, 
tyranny, and oppression well-nigh attained. 



CHAPTER IV. 

CHABACTERISTI08 AND DOOTEINEB OF JESUS CHRIST. 

1. Christ was " the Author and Finisher of 
the faith" of Christianity; and in Jesus Christ 
was the first Christian Church, which was perfect 
and prolific spirituaUy just so far as Adam was 
perfect and prolific naturally, before Eve was 
brought forth. 

2. Christ (dual) is a supermundane being, and 
was the Agent of the new revelation to Jesus, the 
truths of which were, Jirsty the immortality of the 
soul, which Moses never taught ; and, second^ the 
resurrection of the soul — these being two distinct 
things ; the former, the continuous existence of the 
soul after mere physical death ; the latter, the 
quickening of the germ of a new and spiritual life 
in the soul, consequent upon, and succeeding to, the 
death of the first Adamic or generative life, which 



CHABAOTEBISTICS AND DOCTRINES OB' CHEI8T. 57 

can only be effected by the faith and the cross of 
the second Adam — Christ. 

3. As all the future powers and faculties of the 
natural man are germinal in the infant, so the life 
and faculties of the future spiritual man are germi- 
nal in the soul of the natural or " old" man ; and 
these are never quickened, except by the same 
power that destroys the life of the " old man" — 
the desire of generation. " I wound, and I heal ; 
I kill, and I make alive." These are the two lives 
that Jesus alluded to when he said, " Whosoever 
will save his life shall lose it ^ and whosoever will 
lose his life for my sake shall find it, and keep it 
unto life eternal." 

4. The prophet Isaiah, speaking of Jesus, says : 
" His life was cut off from the earth ; and who 
shall declare his generation ?" Meaning that his 
earthly life, which supports the work of generation, 
was " cut off," as must be also the earthly life of 
every true Christian. And Jesus himself said : 
"Therefore doth my Father love me, because /?ay 
dovm my life. No man taketh it from me ; but I 
lay it dovm of my self '^^ 



58 SHAKERS AND SHAKEBISM. 

5. The beginniDg of Christianity was the end 
of generation — of the world — in Jesus. " Ye are 
they [said the Apostle] upon whom the ends of 
the world hxive come^^ already. Thus the same 
Spirit that creates souls " anew in Christ Jesus,*' 
causes them to '^forsake and to hate father and 
mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters, 
houses and land, and their own [generative] life 
also." This hitherto paradoxical and hard saying 
of Jesus, the Shakers simplify upon the above 
premises, affirming that all these characters can 
be hated without the least enmity against any hu- 
man soul. 

6. It is the generative life in man and woman 
that induces them to assume the character of hiLS-- 
hand cmd wife ; the same life impels them to be- 
come father and mother ; and hence result the 
children^ who are hrothers and sisters^ all of 
whom require, desire, and (if they can) acquire 
houses and land^ to support the earth-relation 
thus formed. All these can be forsaken and hated 
without hating the persons of the original man and 
woman, or of the children. 



CHABACTBKI8TIG8 AND DOOTBINEB OF CHBIST. 59 

7. It is the earthly, fleshly relation that must 
be hated by all who would become followers of 
Jesus — ChristicmB — " children of the resurrec- 
tion," of whom Jesus said, " They neither marry 
nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of 
God in heaven." 

8. All who " marry and are given in marriage," 
or who support that order, the Shakers term '' the 
children of this world;" thus, on this ground, 
throwing heathens, Turks, Catholics, Protestants, 
infidels, etc., all into one general class, or com- 
pany. They quote Jesus : '' Think not that I am 
come to bring peace on earth [to the earthly pro- 
creative relation] ; for I am come to set a man at 
variance against his father, and the daughter 
against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against 
her mother-in-law, and to make a man's foes those 
of his own household." 

9. Yet the Shakers do not condemn marriage as 
an institution of " the world," to whom only it be- 
longs ; but they say that the procreative powers 
should be used by them exclusively for offspring, 
and that all beyond that, however perfectly it may 



60 SHAKEBS AND 8HAKEBISM. 

be covered by the mantle of hv/num laWj they 
call " the unfruitful works of darkness." 

10. " He that looks upon a woman to lust after 
her, has [in the sight of God] committed adultery 
with her" none the less because she is his legal 
wife. Grod looks at the impelling moii/oe^ not the 
humam, legality^ o{ an action. ^^ Blessed are [not 
the legal, but] the pure in heart, for they shall see 
God." 

11. Those who will "crucify the old man, with 
all his affections and lueU^ shall see a greater 
manifestation of God than it is possible for a 
generative man to behold ; to prove which, the 
Shakers adduce adentific no less than scriptv/ral 
reasons. "The natural man disoemeth not the 
things of the Spirit; neither can he know them," 
any more than fishes can see and know the things 
pertaining to land animals, or than the chrysalis 
can be cognizant of the fields and flowers of the 
future butterfly. 

12. Second. Another practical principle, in 
which Christ instructed Jesus, was Brotherhood — 
to love his neighbor as himself, and not to appro- 



0HAEACTERI8TICS AND D00TRIX::5 OF CHJRI8T. 61 

ppiate to his own selfish use, to the exclusion of 
those on the same plane, either of the life-elements 
— earth, air, fire, or water. Foxes had holes in 
the ground, and birds nests in the trees, but Jesus 
had no place or home to call his own. 

13. And except a man forsook all that he had, 
he could not be a disciple of Jesus. Hence the 
rich young man went sorrowful away, rather than 
sell and distribute his great possessions, and thus 
become a poor man, in order to join Jesus and his 
company. This also explains why a cable could 
go through the eye of a needle easier than a rich 
man could enter into the kingdom of heaven, 
which was formed within, or among his disci- 
ples. 

14. Five dollars of private, selfish property 
would exclude a man from the communion of a 
company who, as did Jesus and his Apostles, pos- 
sessed their property i/a common^ as effectually as 
would five millions ; for the law of the Gospel is, 
'^ Except a man forsake all that he hath, he can 
not enter into the kingdom of heaven." In addi- 
tion to that, he must also follow the example of 



62 SHAKBBS AND SUAKESISM. 

Jesus, in "taking up the cross," and living a vir- 
gin life. 

16. The third principle exemplified in the life 
of Jesus, and which came from the same source as 
the preceding ones, is, " Resist not evil" — non- 
resistance. " If any man smite thee on thy right 
cheek, turn to him the other also. Love your ene- 
mies. Do good to them that hate you. Bless 
them that curse you." " He that taketh the 
sword shall perish by the sword." " The Son of 
man is not come to destroy men's lives, but to save 
them." So that, according to Shaker doctrines, 
there can be no such thing as a Christia/n warrior. 
With them the time has come to beat the sword 
into a plowshare, and the spear into a pruning- 
hook, and they will not practise or learn war any 
more. 

16. Fourth, Jesus took no part in earthly 
governments. When he was offered all the king- 
doms of the world for hia possession, he utterly 
refused them, and thus crucified his ambition. 
He ulso taught his disciples that, although " the 
princes of the Gentiles exercise dominion over 



CHARACTERISTICS AND DOCTRINES OF CHRIST. 63 

tbem, and they that are great exercise authority 
upon them, it shall not be so among you ; for who- 
soever will be great and chief among you, let him 
be your minister — servant — least of all." 

17. Fifth. Christ saved Jesus from sin; and 
^^ his name was called Jesus, because he should 
save his people from their sins.'' Hence the 
Shakers claim a present salvation from sin as 
essential to the Christian character. They say 
that the Law of Moses (in respect to salvation) 
was " weak through the flesh" (generation), which 
it allowed at the same time that it condemned all 
who practised it. 

18. For it enjoined that ^' the man who shall 
lay with a woman .... was unclean ;" 
that they were "both unclean" — sinful: and "the 
bed whereon they lay was unclean," or defiled ; 
and they were separated from the camp of Israel 
therefor. Nor could they be again admitted until 
they had been re-baptized (washed all over) with 
water. 

19. Jesus escaped this only by living " separate 
from sin and sinners ;" that is, by living a virgin 



64 8HAKEB8 AND 8HAKEBI6M. 

life. If he had married, and lived in generation, 
he must have been subject to the Law as above 
stated, and paid the penalty ; for he " came not to 
destroy the Law, but to fulfill" the righteousness 
thereof. 

20. John the Baptist told the soldiers to "do 
violence to no man." And the Jewish Apostle 
said, " Marriage is honorable in all, if the bed be 
undefiled," The sin was not in being a soldier, 
but in doing violence / nor was the sin in the fact 
of marriage, but in the act of generation ; for per- 
sons may have been married before being called to 
be Christians, as was the case with Peter and 
others. 

21. The penal law was added because of trans- 
gression ; the typical law, of baptism, circumcision, 
etc., to foreshadow things to come. The latter was 
abolished by the substance — virgin life / and the 
former, by " ceasing to do evil, and learning to do 
well." There could be no sin-offering where there 
was no sin ; no type, when the antetype had come ; 
and no tithes, where there was no individual 
property, but " all things common." 



CHAPTER V. 

GHABAOTES OF THE PRIMITIVE OHEISTIAN CHUBCH. 

1. Jesus Chbist foretold two things of great 
importance. One was, that the Christian Church, 
which he originated, would not continue, but would 
be utterly destroyed. He said that himself and 
his disciples were " the light of the world ;" and 
he counselled souls to walk in the light while they 
had it, because ^^ the night cometh wherein no man 
can work.^' That is, there would come a time 
when " iniquity would abound, and the love of 
many would wax cold,'' and when there would be 
no true Church on the earth. The same was con- 
firmed by his Apostles, who said there would be a 
" falling away," and that ^' that man of sin would 
be revealed^''^ in place of a revelation of Christ. 

2. The other was, that another appearing on 

5 



66 SHAEJIBS AND SHAKEBISM. 

earth of the same Christ (or second Adam aud 
Eve) as had been manifested to him (Jesus) woald 
take place, to establish a second and more perfect 
Christian Church, precisely according to the Pat- 
tern of the Christian Church m himself; for 
then Christ would come, not in one individual only, 
but "in the clouds of [the fourth] heaven, with 
power and great glory;" that is, in numbers of 
persons, or "clouds of witnesses,'' in and among 
whom Christ would make his " second appearing 
without sin unto salvation." " Behold the Lord 
Cometh in ten thousand of his saints." 

3. For the Shaker idea is, that in Jesus alone 
were all the characteristics of a perfect Chris- 
tian ; that the Apostles stood upon a lower plane, 
and were children of God by " adoption^ ^ ^^y^ 
noi really. This point is conclusively proved 
from the conjoint testimony of themselves and 
Jesus. 

4. Jesus said he had " many things to say unto 
them that they were not able to bear," and ex- 
claimed of them, " ye of little faith !" These 
expressions, with the mistaken conceptions the 



CHABACTEB OF THE PBIMITIVK CHtTBOH. 67 

Apostles had formed of the nature of his kingdom 
and of the resurrection, demonstrate that they only 
" knew in part, prophesied in part, and saw as 
through a glass darkly" and imperfectly. 

5. The Apostles were "only a kind of first- 
fruits ;" not the kingdom itself. But they had 
the spirit of promise and of hope, that in the sec- 
ond appearing, when Christ should he manifested 
in the order of Mother^ through a female^ as he 
had been in the order of Father , through JeauSy 
they should sit down with Jesus on his throne — 
rise to the same plane. 

6. This was the condition and expectation of 
the Apostolic Church, whose members were all 
Hebrews. For, as Maria Childs remarks, " Chris- 
tianity was somewhat exclusive and national in its 
character, being preached only by Jesus, and ad- 
dressed only to Hebrews." 

7. The Church professed to live a virgin life ; 
and those in it who " waxed wanton against 
Christ," and married^ had " damnation, because 
they had cast off their first faith" of celibacy. 
" They had all things common." The 8,000 who 



68 SHAKERS A^D SHAKERIBM. 

were converted in two days " sold all their posses- 
sions" of bouses and land, and formed a perfect 
community. They did not call the least thing 
their "(?iwi," They took no part in the heathen 
governments, either in being officers or electing 
officers. They would not swear, or take oaths. 
They would not fight, or engage in war ; and they 
suffered much persecution because they would not 
enlist in the armies of the Roman empire. 

8. They bore a testimony against sin, saying, 
^' He who sinneth hath not seen Christ, neither 
known him." They had the gift of healing the 
sick. ^' Is any sick among youl let him send for 
the elders of the Church," etc. ; and often their 
shadow or their clothes imparted a healing power 
to the invalid. They " looked for the second ap- 
pearing of Christ, and hasted unto the coming of 
the day of the Lord." 

9. This was the Jewish Christian Church, the 
temple of God, and was founded by the Apostles 
one degree below the Church in Jesus. And when 
Peter preached Christianity to the Gentiles, he 
founded the Gentile Christian Church on a plane 



CHABAGTEB OF THE PEIMITIVE CHURCH. 69 

Still lower than that of the Jewish Christian 
Church. 

10. The Gentile Christian Church did not in- 
troduce war or slavery, but it did introduce mar- 
riage and private property / yet both these insti- 
tutions were under restrictions drawn from the 
Mosaic laws, to which the Gentiles had never been 
accustomed. They were restricted to one wife, 
and subjected to self-denial in many respects; that 
was all they were able to bear. But they were not 
saved from sin ; and they looked for the second 
coming of Christ, when, as the Apostle told them, 
those who had wives would be just the same as if 
they were not married ; and those who owned prop- 
erty, as though they possessed nothing; as then 
they would rise into the order of the Church above 
them. 

11. The Shaker writers say that unless this 
distinction between the Jewish Christian Church 
and the Gentile Christian Church be observed, 
the various writings of the New Testament can 
not be understood, as all the Epistles to the Gen- 
tile Christian Churches contain very different doc- 



70 SHAKERS AND SHAKERISM. 

trines to those addressed to the Hebrews, and as 
contained in the four Gospels. The Gentile Chris- 
tians were fed with " milk, and not with meat, be- 
cause they were not able to bear it." They were 
written to " as unto carnal, and not as unto spir- 
itual." 

12. The five most prominent practical principles 
of the Pentecost Church were, first, common 
property ; second, a life of celibacy ; third, norir 
resistance ^ fourth, a separate and distinct govern- 
ment ; and, fifth, power over physical disease. 



CHAPTER VI. 

FALL OF THE PEIMmVE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 

1. When Constantine was converted, he found- 
ed and became the heathen* head of the Homan 
Catholic Church, which was formed upon a very 
much lower plane than was even the Oentile 
Christian Church. 

2. It was distinguished from that, first, by the 
union of church and state, the Church gradually 

<* Constantine, who was a heathen, was never converted to 
even Roman Catholic Christianity. Mosheim says of him : 
"It is certain that he was not received by baptism into the 
number of the faithful until a few days before his death," and 
then only in order that he "might ascend pnre and spotless 
to the mansions of light and immortality ;" notwithstanding 
his having cruelly murdered his father-in-law, his wife, his 
Bon, his brother-in-law, his nephew, and others, besides his 
nnmeroas other abominations. (See Mosheim' s Ecclesiaatical 
History, by Dr. Maclaine, American edition, 1797, vol. i., 
cent, iv., part i., chap, i., pp. 313, 314.) 



72 SHAEEBS AND SHAKBBISM. 

assuming the supreme power and control of all 
civil as well as ecclesiastical matters ; second^ by 
the introduction of war as a permanent element of 
theology, using the sword not only against external 
enemies of the church and state, but as a means 
of conversion to Roman Catholic Christianity^ and 
also turning the same sword against the mtemal 
enemies of this mongrel church and its theology, 
by the establishment of the inquisition^ based upon 
the absurd idea that faith, or want of faith, is the 
result of the w>iK, and not of evidence, or the ab- 
sence thereof; by monopoh/ of the elements of 
existence, particularly of the earth and its produce; 
by sla/oery, which was also incorporated into the 

« 

Church as a part of its theological creeds ; and by 
oaths. 

3. The Roman Catholic Church is the " beast" 
that John saw, which combined the wild, destruc* 
tive characteristics of the bear, the leopard, and 
the lion. 

4. And John was commanded to ^^ rise and 
measure the temple of God [the JefuoisK Christian 
Church] and them that worship therein. But the 



FALL OF THE PRIMITIVE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. 73 

courty which is without, measure it not ; for it is 
given unto the Gentiles [the Gentile Christian 
Church] ; and they shall tread down the holy city 
forty-and-two months" — 1,260 years. 

5. That was the falling away and degenerating 
of the Gentile Christian Church into the Roman, 
Catholic Church; and the union of church and 
state, with the adoption of war, possessed it of 
physical power, by which means it trod down lib- 
erty of conscience, requiring the Jewish Christian 
Church to come to its standard of orthodoxy, or 
endure physical torture, and the breaking up of 
their communities, by the operation of its oppress- 
ive organic laws. 

6. John also ^^saw a beast, great and terrible 
[as above described], rise out of the sea" — the 
spiritual elements of the Primitive Church. " This 
beast [the Roman Catholic Church] made war 
with the saints, and overcame them ; and all the 
world wondered [and wandered] after the beast." 
And he K:led over all nations, kindreds, tongues, 
and people, auv! there was no power on earth 
aWe to wage war wuh this beast; therefore it 



74 SHAKERS AND 6HAKEEI8M. 

is plain that that church is the beast of the 
Apocalypse. 

7. And John "saw another beast rise out of the 
earth [Rationalism and Materialism], having two 
horns like a lamb, but spoke with the mouth of a 
dragon." This was the "image of the first beast; 
and it exercised all the power of the first beast,'* 
war, persecution, etc. This is Protestantisrriy in 
which Lutheranism and Calvinism are the two prin* 
cipal powers (or horns), for they divide the kingdom 
of the " image of the beast" between them. 

8. In no one important practical principle of 
life did the Protestant Church difier from the 
Roman Catholic Church. Both of them hold to 
marriage, private property, union of church and 
state, ambition, oaths, persecution, war, slavery, 
monopoly of the life-elements in its most aggra- 
vated form ; salvation, an unmeaning something to 
be possessed in some distant, unknown world, but 
gained and secured in this by means of water, 
bread, wine, blood, and belief in the cruel murder 
of the best man the earth ever produced, or faith 
in the wooden cross, the instrument of his cruci- 



FALL OF THE PEIMITIVE CHRISTIAN CHUKCH. 75 

fixion. And both alike inherit all the diseases of 
the Egyptians, and (as churches) are utterly desti- 
tute of the gift of healing, as well as of all the 
other gifts that were possessed by the Primitive 
Church. 

9. Thus the " beast which ruled over all nations, 
kindreds, people, and tongues," and " the great 
Whore of Babylon, the Mother of Harlots and of 
abominations of the earth, who sitteth upon many 
waters" (and " the waters where the whore sitteth 
are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and 
tongues"), are the one and the same Roman 
Catholic Church. She is the "woman," the 
" great city that ruleth over the kings of the 
earth" for forty-and-two months ; and her endless 
brood of harlot daughters, " hateful, and hating 
one another," are the divided, warring Protestant 
sects, 

10. And the mother and her daughters, for 
want of a common enemy, bite, rend, and devour 
each other ; and, in their jarring creeds, they not 
only " teach for doctrines the commandments of 
men," but they teach even the *' doctrines of 



76 SHAEEBS AND SHAKEBI6M. 

devils,'' as before enumerated; and, by external 
laws, "forbidding to marry" — the counterfeit of a 
virgin life ; and " commanding to abstain from 
meats" — the counterfeit of true temperance in all 
things, the legitimate fruit of the testimony of 
Jesus ; " preaching for hire, and divining for 
money" — a fictitious Gospel that is not " without 
money and without price." 

11. Therefore Christendom (Babylon) "has be- 
come the habitation of devils [demons, or disorder- 
ly disembodied spirits, who are ministers of falsities 
and confusion], the hold of every foul spirit, and 
the cage of every hateful and unclean bird." For 
there is no form of human wickedness which can 
not be found within the pale of the theological 
organizations of Christendom. 

12. That the Protestant Reformation effected a 
revolution for the better, the Shakers do not ques- 
tion ; nor that even Roman Catholicism itself is an 
advance upon mere heathenism ; for the laws of 
progress will assert their supremacy in all human 
affairs, and Grod can make (or overrule) even the 
wrath of mem to praise Him. 



FALL OF THE PRIMITIVE CHBI8TIAN CHUBCH. 77 

13. Adjudged from the stand-point of the people 
and age upon whom, and in which, they operated, 
both Constantine, Luther, and Calvin were real 
reformers ; but adjudged from the stand-point of 
Jesus and his seven principles (true Christianity), 
they were what Luther, in his last will and testa- 
ment, subscribed himself as being, ^' a damnable 
man," and as both Catholics and Protestants say 
of themselves, "miserable sinners." 



CHAPTER VII. 

EISE OF THE "TWO WITNESSES." 

1. Next in order come the "two witnesses," 
who were to "prophesy [and mourn and repent] 
in sackcloth and ashes," during the forty-two 
months' reign of the beast and his image. 

2. Although the " holy city," or Jewish Chris- 
tian Church, was trodden down by the Roman 
Catholic, or fallen OentUe Christian Church 
(antichrist), yet God, by revelation, raised up in 
every age of the apostasy male and female wit- 
nesses, who, reviving the principles or testimony 
of the Jewish Christian Church, as already set 
forth, testified, or witnessed, against the beast and 
his image, by word and by their lives of innocence. 
They held no union with church or state ; they 
took no oaths, bore no arms, held no slaves, lived 
a virgin life, and " had all things common." 



RISE OP THE "two WITNESSES." 79 

3. These were the " holy people," whose power 
was continually scattered by the persecuting arm 
of antichrist. They w^ere known to their enemies 
by the term "heretics," and by historians as 
Marcionites, Therapeutics, Manicheans, Nestorians, 
Waldenses, Moravians, etc., and, lastly, as Quak- 
ers, who, with the exception of a virgin life, em- 
bodied more of the principles of the Primitive 
Church than any other of the " witnesses." 

4. It has been estimated that fifty millions of 
these " witnesses," or " heretics," have been tor- 
tured to death by the Inquisition^ and other in- 
strumentalities of the terrible beast, or Roman 
Catholic Church ; and, by the image of the beast, 
a proportionate number. 

6. The full history of the rise and fall of these 
" witnesses," should such ever be impartially writ- 
ten, would prove a highly interesting record. 
Each of them "began in the Spirit." They 
originated in a revelation to some man or woman, 
as Marcion, Manes, Priscillian, Fox, Joanna South- 
cott, Jemima Wilkinson, and others. When they 
had " finished their testimony, the beast made war 



80 SHAKERS A^D SHAKEBISM. 

against tbem, and killed them ; but they would not 
suflfer the dead bodies to be put into graves," but 
left them lying in the streets of his city of Baby- 
lon ; and thus the ^' kingdom of the beast has be- 
come full of names" (they are numbered by hun- 
dreds) of sects who have lost their spiritual life, 
finished their testimony against sin, and have given 
their power and influence unto the kingdom of the 
beast, by uniting with, and building up, the very 
things they formerly took up their cross against. 

6. Persecution continued while their testimony 
lasted, and they grew in grace and truth. It was 
when the church and state began to favor and 
speak well of them that concessions became mutual 
— then it was that they were " killed" spirituaUy^ 
and not by persecution. 

7. The monies and nuns are some of the " dead 
bodies" of the Roman Catholic Church ; and the 
Bunkers, Waldenses, Baptists, Methodists, and 
Quakers (who may be taken as a type of all the 
v/itnesses) are some of the " dead bodies" of the 
Protestant Church. 

8. It was this unbroken chain of " witnesses" 



RISE OF THE " TWO WITNESSES." 81 

that connected the first and second Christian 
Churches. At the end of the 1,260 years, '' the 
Spirit of life from God" entered into some indi- 
vidual '' witnesses" of that " dead body" called 
Quakers^ and " they stood upon their feet," or 
spiritual understandings, '^ and they heard a voice 
from [the resurrection plane of the fourthj heaven, 
saying. Come up hither ;" and they obeyed it ; 
" and they ascended up to heaven in a cloud," or 
body ; and they have dwelt in heaven more than 70 
years ; for the kingdom of heaven is formed " with- 
in," or among, " them." They have the testimony 
of Jesus, and they live in a more perfect Christian 
order, and possess a greater gift of salvation from 
sin, than did the Jewish Christian Church at 
Jerusalem. 

9. As John preached repentance unto Moses^ to 
prepare souls for Christ's first appearing, so did 
Fox, and Jane and James Wardley preach repent- 
ance unto Christ's ji/rst appearing, to prepare souls 
for the second coming of Christ, and the setting up 
of his final kingdom upon earth. 

10. Thus, out of the last of the " witnesses," 

6 



82 SHAKEBS AND 8HAKEBI8M. 

the Quakers, the " forty-and-two months" having 
expired, arose Ann Lee and her little company, to 
whom Christ appeared the second time, '' without 
sin unto salvation," and made a new revelation to 
her of the seven principles, and of all the truths 
that had been revealed, in his ji/rst appearing, to 
Jesus / the practice of which constituted hiirh the 
ji/rst Christian Chv/rch / and the same principles 
being reduced to practice by Ann Lee^ constituted 
her the second Christian Church, 

11. The "marriage of the Lamb had come, for 
his wife had made herself ready [thus showing 
that she was not iom ready] ; and to her was 
given to be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white : 
the fine linen was the righteousness of saints^'* 
nothing more. 

12. Ann^ by strictly obeying the light revealed 
within her, became " righteous even as Jesus was 
righteous." She acknowledged Jesus Christ as 
her Head and Lord, and formed the same character 
as a spiritual woman that he formed as a spirit- 
ual mam,. 

13. Ann followed Jesus^ not as an imitator. 



BI8E OP THE "two WrrNBflSBB." 83 

but through being baptized with, and led by, the 
same Christ Spirit that he was baptized with and 
led and guided by. She became a Mother in Is- 
rael, and was thenceforth known to her followers 
(or children) by the endearing name of Mother. 
Still it was the principles (before explained) that 
were the founddtion of the second Christian 
Church, and not man or woman, whether Jesus or 
Ann. Their importance is derived from the fact 
of their being the first man and the fi/nt woman 
perfectly identified with the principles and Spirit 
of Christ. 

14. A part of the curse pronounced upon wo- 
num was, that mem should rule over her^ which 
has been fully accomplished ; for, from the fall to 
the present time, all human governments have 
claimed it to be the sole right of the nho/rt to 
" rule," whether in religious or political organ- 
izations, and Christian churches and governments 
(so called) have been no real exception to this 

15. As Christ's fi/rst appearing was only to and 
in the male part of humanity, the Jewish as well 



8i SHAKEKS A2^D SnAKKJRISM. 

as the Gentile Christian Churches were governed 
almost entirely b}^ men. The Roman Catholic and 
Protestant world know only ^inale rulers ; woma/n 
is ignored. The Quakers, the last of the " wit- 
nesses," began to include the female element in 
their system ; but not until Christ had made his 
second appearance in and to the female^ was 
woman ever allowed a full and equal share in any 
civil or religious government, or established in the 
possession of her just and equal rights.* 

16. Naturalists state that the larvae of the com- 
mon working bee, by simply feeding it upon supe- 
rior food, can be progressed to a qibeen bee. This, 
if true, proves that every such bee possesses the 
undeveloped germ of a queen bee, and is a beauti- 
ful figure of the spiritual life that is hid with 
every natural man and woman, ^^ hid with Christ 
in God," waiting the second advent of Christ, to 

*> The fact that- females sometimes reign over nations as 
queens, is only an apparent exception to the above rule and 
practice, it being so only in case of default of male issue ; for 
they do not reign as vsmen, and over femdle» only, but a* meriy 
instead of men, and over men, which, as icomen^ is not Ihtir 
right. 



BIBE OF THB "tWO WITNBSSBS." 86 

feed and quicken it into being, on a plane above 
that of the earthly animal order of generative 
reproduction. 

17. This is the true resurrection state in which 
Jesus stood when he said, " I am the resurrec- 
tion." To this state Paul desired to arrive when 
he said, " I follow after, if that by any means I 
may attain to the resurrection from the dead." 
This could not mean the re- animation of the physi- 
cal body, as that (if true) would be as independent 
of the will as was its physical birth or death. A 
physical resurrection, the Shakers hold to be utter- 
ly repugnant to both science, reason, and Scrip- 
ture. 



CHAPTER VIII. 



CHABAOTEB OF THE CHUBCH OF CHBISt'b SECOND 

APPEABING. 



1. In the fourteenth chapter of the book of the 
Revelation, the second appearing of Christ is de- 
scribed as already past. The hundred and forty- 
four thousand mentioned are not a particular num- 
ber ; it is a Hebraism, denoting a perfect character 
by numbers, as 12x12, a perfect square: they 
are virgins/ they are redeemed from the earth, 
from among men ; they " follow the Lamb [Jesus] 
whithersoever he goeth ;" they are without fault 
or sin, and they have the everlasting Gospel to 
preach to them that dwell upon the earth. 

2. An angel proclaims the fall of Babylon, as 
the effect of the preaching of the Gospel. Another 
angel denounces a woe upon those who have the 
" fnarJc of the bedst^^ — the seal of authority placed 



THE CHTBOH OF CHBIBt's SECOND APPEABING. 87 

upon the organ of cavsaLity preventing the action 
of the reasoning faculties. 

3. There is the ^^ white cloud?'* — a sinless, 
innocent company — upon which ^^one sat like unto 
the Son of man;^^ for as Eve was like unto 
Adam — " bone of his bone, and flesh of his flesh'^ 
— so was Mother Ann like unto Jesus — of the 
human race, of the same origin, life, character, 
and principles. 

4. The ^^ sharp sicJcle^'*^ with which another 
angel " reaped the ripe harvest of the earth, '^ is the 
testimony of Jesus — the everlasting Gospel — which 
cuts souls oflf from the field of gener'ation^ and 
thus (in them) brings the world to an end. 

5. The angel alluded to in the eighteenth chap- 
ter, who " came down from heaven, having great 
power, and the earth was lightened with his glory," 
and who proclaimed the fall of Babylon, is Spirit- 
ualism. The physical manifestations exhibit the 
power of the invisible over the visible world, the 
light of which is to enlighten the earth — material- 
ists — by leading them to a knowledge of the im- 
mortality of the soul, of the existence of a spirit- 



88 SHAKERS AND SHAKEBISM. 

world, of the fact of the intercommanication be- 
tween the two worlds, and of the rights of man. 

6. Spiritualism can minister physical power and 
spiritual light, but not a knowledge of the way of 
salvation from sin. It can confound earthly and 
religious materialists, and reveal the false doctrines 
of a/ntichrut^ of which itself is an integral part, 
and thus accelerate her fall ; but it is not able to 
re-arrange society. 

7. The Spirit is indeed being "poured out upon 
all flesh," without distinction of age, sex, party, 
or even moral condition. But it comes to pass 
that only such as " call upon the name of the Lord 
shall be saved." For in Jerusalem, and in Mount 
Zion alone, is deliverance from the power of sin^ 

8. And the one sitting upon the " white cloud,'* 
from whose face the heavens and the earth — the 
old religious and civil systems of Babylon — " fled 
away," and who is " like Jesus," she possesses 
that power, and utters a voice to those in falling 
Babylon : " Come out of her, my people, that ye 
be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive 
not of her plagues." 



THE CH0KCH OF CHRISt's SECOND APPEABING. 89 

9. And those who hear the voice of " the Spirit" 
(Christ Jesus) and of " the Bride" (Mother Ann) 
form the " new heaven and the new earth, wherein 
dwells righteousness." And they build the taber- 
nacle of God, which is with men ; '^ and Grod Him- 
self shall dwell with them, and shall be their God, 
and they shall be his people." All this the Shak- 
ers believe, and hold is fulfilled, or being fulfilled, 
in their order — its faith, principles, and commu- 
nities. 

10. " For now has come salvation and strength, 
the kingdom of our God, and the power of his 
Christ." For the tyrant, liisty " the accuser of 
the brethren" in all the three preceding Dispensa- 
tions, is now cast out ; ^^ and the ransomed of the 

« 

Lord have come to Zion, with singing, and with 
everlasting joy upon their heads." 



CHAPTER IX. 

MODE OF W0E8HIP. 

1. It is pretty gCDerally known that the Shakers 
serve God by singing and dancing ; but why they 
practise this mode of worship is not so generally 
understood. 

2. It should be recollected that " God is a 
Spirit," and can be worshiped only " in spirit and 
in truth." Without the presence of the Spirit 
there can be no true worship. Conviction of sin, 
godly sorrow, and repentance, are the first effects 
of the Spirit of God upon the conscience of a sin- 
ner. And when sin is fully removed, by confess- 
ing and forsaking it, the cause of heaviness, gloom, 
and sorrow is gone; and joy and rejoicing, and 
thanksgiving and praise, are then the spontaneous 
effects of a true spirit of devotion. And whatever 



MODS OP WORSHIP. 91 

manner the Spirit may dictate, or whatever the 
form into which the Spirit may lead, it is accept- 
able to Him from whom the Spirit proceeds. 

3. All the %db})aths among the Jews, as here- 
after set forth, were joyous festivals — times for 
men to do good to each other, by feeding the 
hungry, clothing the naked, etc. ; for all to make 
each other happy, and thus rejoice before the Lord, 
" with music and dancing." 

4. Dancing was a national custom among the 
Hebrews upon all extraordinary occasions of some 
great good, as a victory, etc. They expressed 
their satisfaction and happiness by dcmdng^ as 
the Americans do by the abnegation of temperance, 
and the explosion of gunpowder. 

6. When Israel had escaped the Egyptians, 
'* all the women went after Miriam with timbrels, 
and with dances." The virgins of Israel held a 
yearly feast at Shiloh, with dances. When David 
killed Goliah there was dancing. " And David 
danced with all his might before the ark of the 
Lord." 

6. Dancing is often mentioned by the seers. 



92 SHAKESS AND SHAKERIBM. 

prophets, and prophetesses. ^^ Thou hast turned 
my mourning into dancing." " Praise his name in 
the dance." " Praise him with the timbrel and 
dance." When the prophets spoke of the Millen- 
nial period and Church, it was with expressions 
such as, " Then shall the virgin rejoice in the 
dance, both old men and young together." "O 
virgin of Israel, thou shalt go forth in the dances 
of them that make merry." And Jesus, in speak- 
ing of the return of the prodigal son, included 
music and dancing as a part of the proceedings 
and rejoicing. 

7. But so plain and simple a subject does not 
require much extension or amplification* Suffice 
it to say, that the Shakers believe the great ^^sab- 
batical year^^ of the world has come, wherein the 
long captive sinner is released ; '* the poor have 
the Gospel preached to them, without money and 
without price;" perpetual and universal brother- 
hood is established and proclaimed, each one (as 
Jesus said) going back to his inheritance in the 
earth : " Blessed are the meek, for they shall 
inherit the earth," and all things else, m cam- 



MODS OF WORSHIP. 93 

mony as an everlasting Jubilee of jubilees, where 
the rich and the poor, the high and the low, the 
bond and the free, male and female, all become 
one in Christ Jesus ; and love is the bond of their 
union. 



CHAPTER X. 

DOCTTBINES OF THE CHTJBCH OF CHEISt's SECOND 

APPEAEING. 



PART I. 
MOSAJO SABBATHS, AND HIGHEB AND LOWEB LAW. 

1. As a common schoolmaster teaches the rudi- 
ments which form the basis of the knowledge to 
be acquired in the higher seminaries of learning, 
so was Moses to Christ. 

2. Moses, as did all the other Prophets, an- 
nounced the higher law of abstract principle^ but 
.administered the lower law of eoiypediency. In the 
wildemessj the law of Brotherhood — love thj 
neighbor as thyself — was declared and enforced. 
Their property and food (manna) was "in com- 
mon^^ for forty years. 



DOCTRINES OF THE CHURCH. 95 

S. In Canaan, '^ the la/nd is mine^ saith the 
Lord; ye are stewards.'' Six days the people 
might buy and sell, and trade and trafiBc, and see 
who should get and keep the most. The seventh 
day was the Lord's, a sabbath to be kept by each 
one " loving his neighbor as himsdf^'* the rich 
feeding and ministering to the wants of the poor — 
all rejoicing together before the Lord, and each 
other as brethren. 

4. xSwp months also they had for me and mine. 
The seventh was a holy convocation, during which 
the higher law — the law of love — was the supreme 
law of the land. Again, six years were allotted 
for selfhood to develop itself, the legitimate fruit 
whereof brought forth debtor and creditor, and 
master and slave; and these relations were sus- 
tained and consummated. But the seventh year 
was the sabbatical year ; and when the trumpet of 
this jubilee sounded, all debts were cancelled, and 
all slaves were restored to freedom. Equality of 
person was established, and the Lord reigned tri* 
umphant for one whole year. 

5. All the spontaneous produce of the land was 



96 SHAKEBS AND 8HAKEBI6M. 

free food for the Lord's people — the wheat, tlie 
grapes, the figs, etc., were gathered and eaten 
where they grew, by the poor and the fatherless, 
the widow and the orphan, the Levite and the 
stranger ; and even the beasts of the field were not 
forgotten — they rested from their labors, and 
roamed the fields in peace. 

6. The fiftieth year was the Sabbath of sab- 
baths, and there were concentrated in it all the 
equalizing elements and fraternal relations of the 
three preceding sabbaths ; and, to crown the whole, 
the land itself, the foundation of all selfish pro- 
perty, was restored to its original and rightful 
owners. Thus the last grasp of the monopolizer 
and selfish speculator on the means of subsistence 
was loosened, and his selfish, unrighteous accumu- 
lations were divided and scattered ; society became 
again resolved into its original elements, as in the 
wilderness, and a condition of uni/^€frsal hrotker- 
hood was established. 

7. These four orders of sabbaths corresponded 
to the four Dispensations, or cycles. The last of 
them, the great Jubilee of jubilees, typified, in a 



DOCTRINKS OF THE CHURCH. 97 

very perfect manner, the sahhath of the worlds 
the fourth and last Dispensation, or cycle, wherein, 
ndf being destroyed, property is " common ;" hMt 
being crucified, a virgin life remains ; the lion, 
wcMTj being overcome by the lamb of peace and 
non-resistance, gentleness and tranquillity prevail ; 
and, finally, the principle of hate being supplanted 
by love to God and man, we have the /M?n-counter- 
feited seal of the second Christian Church. 

8. In Jesus (as a perfect Jew) the promise of 
God through Moses, that he would ^^ take all sick- 
ness away from the midst of thee," was fulfilled. 
This was the ultimate of the Mosaic Dispensation 
— to save the body from sickness, and ^^all the 
diseases of the Egyptians,'' or Gentiles, as per- 
fectly as the Gospel of Jesus Christ will save the 
soul from all sin and spiritual infirmity. 

9. Jesus was free from bodily disease ; " and he 
went about doing good," by healing those Jews 
who were sick, lame, blind, or who had leprosy, or 
were possessed of demons. And when multitudes 
of invalids were brought to him, " he healed them 

all." This power he transmitted to his disciples, 

7 



98 SHA££SS AND 6HAKESISM. 

and established it as one of the signs of a Chris- 
tian, and of a Christian Church, saying, " These 
signs shall follow them that believe : they shall lay 
hands on the sick, and they shall be healed," etc. 



PART n. 

PBOBATION, AND HEAVENS AND HELLS. 

10. The four successive cycles into which the 
Shakers divide the religious history of mankind are 
not confined to this earth, but extend into, and are 
operative in, the spirit-world, where also a state 
of probation still continues, as upon this earth. 
Every human being that has ever existed upon this 
globe is within one or other of these cycles. 

11. Each cycle has its appropriate heaven and 
hell — first, second, third, and fourth. No soul 
will be finally lost until it has rejected the greatest 
spiritual light of the fourth cycle. 

12. The wicked antediluvians, who rejected the 
preaching of Noah, went to the first hell ; the 
good went to the ji/rst hea/oen. The wicked Jews 



DO0TBIKE6 OF THE CHUBOH. 99 

go to the second heU, which Jews call gehenna / 
the righteous Jews, such as Ahraham, Daniel, 
David, and others, went to the second heaven^ 
which is called Pwradise. 

13. Paul was " caught up to the third hea/oen^'^^ 
that is, to the heaven of the cycle in which he 
lived, namely, the thirdy or first Christian Church. 
Jesus said, ^^No man hath ascended up to [the 
thirdj heaven but the Son of man, who is [already] 
in heaven." Even '' David had not ascended into 
[the third] heaven." 

14. Of the righteous within the second cycle, it 
is said, " These all died in faith^ not having re- 
cei/oed the promises^ God having provided some 
better thing for us, that they without us should 
not be made perfect." That is, the Jews out of 
the body, who had died hundreds of years before, 
would have the same Gospel of the kingdom 
preached to them that was preached to the inhabit- 
ants of Jerusalem who were then in the body. 

15. Jesus himself did not ascend into \ltLQ fourth 
heaven till after his departure from earth. He 
said to Mary, " Touch me not, for I am not yet 



100 SHAKEB6 AND BHAKERISM. 

ascended," etc. ; and again, it is said, ^^ Jesus was 
not yet glorified." 

16. Heaven or hell is first formed within every 
individual soul; then the law of affinity draws 
together, in the spirit-world, those whose states 
are homogeneous, and who internally are in the 
same heaven or hell, who happify or torment each 
other, as the case may be. 

17. When Jesus had finished his work on earth 
— that is, organized a Church, and commissioned 
it to preach the Gospel to every creature in all 
nations — he "gave up the ghost," and "descended 
into hell" — the ji/rst hell — and preached the Gos- 
pel unto them who for many ages had been bound 
with chains of mental and spiritual darkness, and 
who were held by the cords of their own wicked 
and unbridled lusts, without either the knowledge, 
the will, or the power to break them; and he 
organized a Church, and commissioned those in it 
to freely give, as they had freely received. 

18. " For this cause," said Peter, " was the 
(xospel preached to them that were dead, that they 
might be judged according to men in the flesh, but 



DOCTRIKES OP THE CHUBCH. 101 

live according to God, in the spirit." But, on his 
descent to this antediluvian hell, he must have 
passed through Paradise, the second heaven; for 
he said to the thief, " This day shalt thou be with 
me in Paradise." 

19. When Jesus had laid the foundation for a 
Church among them, he ascended to his own 
proper sphere, or heaven. He informed his dis- 
ciples that in his Father's house there were many 
mansions (or heavens) for them; that where he 
was, there they also might be. 

20. In the Scriptures, mention is made of 
"heavens," and "heaven of heavens;" of the 
" new heavens ;" and of the " old heavens passing 
away with a great noise ;" of the " former heavens 
not being remembered, nor coming into mind any 
more ;" and of " the powers of the heavens being 
shaken." These and kindred passages possess no 
meaning, except upon the principle that each cycle 
or Dispensation has its own heaven and hell, as 
before stated. 

21. The heaven of the fourth and last Dispen- 
sation and Church is now in process of formation. 



102 SHAKERS AND SHASEBISM. 

and will finally supersede the three previous heav- 
ens ; for the principles, the ruling authority, and 
the governing " powers of these heavens,'' and the 
heavens themselves, will be " shaken," and " will 
pass away." 

22. " The kingdom of heaven" of the fourth 
cycle is a state of purgation and final separation 
between the good and the evil, the true and the 
false. Souls in this kingdom are only " begotten 
of God," and they need to watch themselves, that 
they do not commit sin, and so fail of coming to 
the new birth. 

23. But when souls are " born of God," they 
can not sin, for they have resisted temptation until 
their evil propensities and lusts are all destroyed, 
and the life of nature of the generative natural 
man is dead in them ; as JeauB said of himself, 
before he left the body, " The prince of this 
world cometh, but hath nothing in me." He was 
born again. 

24. This is a state that no other person could 
ever attain to, until Christ had made his second 
appearing, and the Mother Spirit was revealed ; 



DOCTRINES OF THE OHUKCH. 103 

for the man is not without the woman, nor the 
woman without the man, in the Lord, any more 
than in nature. And hut few, while in the hodj, 
attain to the new Mrthy which is the end of the 
travail of the regeneration, the same as the hirth 
of a natural infant is the end of the travail in 
generation. And as the mother is the bearing 
spirit with natural children, until they coine to 
the natural birth, and begin to see and learn the 
things of the natural world, so also is the spiritual 
mother the bearing spirit, until the " new birth ;" 
after which the spiritual child begins to learn the 
pure things of God on the highest and most spiritual 
plane. Then it is in the " heaven of heavens." 



PART in. 

OOD DUAL-7FATHSB AND MOTHEB. 

25. An all-important, sublime, and foundational 
doctrine of the Shakers is the Existence of an 
Eternal Father and an Eternal Mother in Deity — 
the Heavenly Parents of all angelical and human 



104 SHAKEBS AND SHAKEBIS^. 

beings. They claim that the knowledge of Ood 
has been progressi/vej from age to age, and from 
Dispensation to Dispensation. 

26. In the Jia*st cycle, when spirituality in man 
was "as the waters to the ankles," God was 
known only as a great Spirit. In the second 
cycle, when spirituality was " as the waters to the 
knees,'' men began to inquire who and what God 
was, and received for answer, " I am that I am." 
You are not prepared to comprehend me further. 

27. In the third cycle, when spirituality in the 
soul was " as the waters to the loins," God, for 
the first time, was revealed to man as Father. 

28. And in the fourth cycle, when spirituality 
is becoming as a deep and broad expanse of 
waters, "that can not be measured" (see Ezek. 
xlvii.), God is also revealed in the character of 
Mother — an Eternal Mother — the bearing Spirit 
of all the creation of God, to whom the Shakers 
think reference is made in the Scriptures, particu- 
larly in the following extracts from the book of 
" Proverbs," under the appellation of Wisdom : 

29. " The Lord possessed me in the beginning 



DOCTBIKUS OF THE CHURCH. 105 

of his way, before his works of old. I was set up 
from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the 
earth was. When there were no depths I was 
brought forth : when there were no fountains 
abounding with water. Before the mountains were 
settled, before the hills was I brought forth : 
while as yet He had not made the earth, nor the 
fields, nor the highest part of the dust of the 
world. 

80. " When He prepared the heavens, I was 
there : when He set a compass upon the face of 
the depth : when He established the clouds above : 
when He strengthened the fountains of the deep : 
when He gave to the sea his decree, that the 
waters should not pass his commandment : when 
He appointed the foundations of the earth : then I 
was by Him, as One brought up with Him ; and 
I was daily his delight, rejoicing always before 
Him." 

31. As Father^ God is the infinite Fountain of 
intelligence, and the Source of all power — " the 
Almighty, great and terrible in majesty ;" '' the 
high and lofty One, that inhabiteth eternity, whose 



106 BHAKBBB AKD BHAKEBISM. 

Dame is Holy, dwelling in the high and holy 
place ;" and " a consuming fire." 

82. But, as Mother, " Ood is love^^ and tender- 
ness ! If all the Tnatemal affections of all the 
female or bearing spirits in animated nature were 
combined together, and then concentred in (me 
individual human female^ that person would be 
but as a type or image of our Eternal Heavenly 
Mother, 

33. Th^ duality of God is expressed in the 
book of '' Genesis" as follows : " Let us make 
man in our image, after our likeness. So God 
created man in his own image ; male and female 
created He them; and called their name Adam." 

84. From which, the Shakers insist, that it is 
the male and female in man that is peculiarly the 
" image of Ood^ In this conclusion they further 
strengthen themselves from the Apostle Paul, who 
aflSrms that the order of the " Godhead," and the 
" eternal creative power of God," which would 
otherwise be invisible to man, are " clearly 
seen, by," through, and in, ^^ the things that are 
made." 



DOCTRINES OF THE OHUBOH. 107 

85. Consequently, if this be admitted, it fol- 
lows, from the undeniable fact that all the things 
which Grod has ^^ made" are d/ualy beginning with 
the mineral kingdom, which, from the "old red 
sandstone" to the very latest geological formation, 
exhibit the action of tun} forces^ the positive and 
negative, which forms, in the vegetable kingdom, 
gradually resolve themselves into male and female 
types, from the fern to the polypus ; and, in the 
animal kingdom, they are progressively developed 
from the polypus up to the simia tribes ; and ulti- 
mately they culminate iii man and woma/n,^ the 
image of Ood their Creator. 

36. It seems scarcely possible to resist this evi- 
dence of a diLol order J so " clearly seen" through- 
out all the domains of nature ; or to admit it, 
without! proving that Ood also is dual, Father 
and Mother, the image and likeness of man, whom 
He has made m^ and female, 

37. " No carnal man hath seen God at any 
time," or witnessed an act of arbitrary, sovereign, 
creative power. The " eternal [creative] power" 
of Grod is only known to man through the per- 



108 8HAKWBB AND BHAKEBISM. 

petual operation of the originating and reproducing 
powers of male*and female principles. 

38. The Shakers believe that the distinction of 
sex is eternal ; that it inheres in the soul itself ; 
and that no angels or spirits exist who are not male 
and female. 

39. From the fact that Adam (and Eve) " was 
the figure of him that was to come," they argue 
that the ^' second Adam, the Lord from heaven, a 
quickening Spirit," was also dualy male and fe- 
male ; and that they were the spiritual Father and 
Mother of Jesus, begetting, watching over, and 
bearing him in the regeneration, towards the new 
hirthy into their own quickening spiritual element. 

40. Every thing is begotten, travails, and is 
born into the elements of its parents. ^^ That 
which is [begotten and] born of the flesh, is flesh ; 
and that which is [begotten and] bom of the 
Spirit, is spirit." 

41. Jesus, being a male, could only reveal and 
manifest the Father in Christ and God. But 
when the second Adam appeared to Ann, and be- 
came her spiritual Parents, she, being a female, 



DOCTRINES OF THE CHURCH. 109 

revealed and manifested the Mother Spirit in 
Christ and in Deity. 

42. The a£fectional nature in man seeks its 
Source and Parent — the Maternal Spirit in Deity. 
Ignorance, or a perverted theology, may divert it 
into wrong channels, as in the worshipers of female 
gods in the heathen nations, which are known to 
be more numerous than all others ; or the Roman 
Catholic adoration of the Virgin Mary — "the 
Mother of God." But nothing can destroy the 
intuitive reverence of the human soul for a Heav- 
enly Mother » It is as innate and universal as is 
the belief in Deity. 

43. From what has been said in the preceding 
pages, it will be readily inferred that the Shakers 
do not believe that God ever has appeared, or does 
now appear, to human beings, except through spir- 
itual agencies. These have often personated Deity, 
and men have mistaken them for the Supreme 
Being; as in the case of John, who fell down to 
worship a being who proved to be one of his own 
brethren, the prophets ; of Manoah and his wife, 
who thought they should die because they had seen 



110 8HAKEBS AND 6HAKERISM. 

an angel, whom they mistook for God; and of 
Moses, who called the angel that appeared to him, 
and ministered the Law on l^Iount Sinai, God. 
Whereas the Apostle said, " The Law was or- 
dained [ministered] by angels, in the hand of a 
mediator," Moses. And John declared that '^ no 
man had seen God at any time." 

44. Christ was the highest and most purely 
spiritual being that ever visited the earth. All 
the preceding ministering spirits who spoke in the 
name of God (and that were ^^ called gods, be- 
cause," as Jesus said, " the word of God came to" 
and through " them"), in every cycle, were infe- 
rior to Christ, and to his order and sphere, being 
mediators between him and the earth's inhabitants 
in every nation. 

46. Thus, previous to the peraonal appearing 
of Christ to Jesus and to Ann, he revealed himself 
through messengers — inferior spiritual agents, ex- 
isting in the intermediate spheres of the spirit- 
world, earthward ; and these revealed themselves 
to man, from sphere to sphere. 

46. Hence it is said : " God, who at sundry 



DOCTBINES OF THE 0HT7B0H. Ill 

times, and in divers manners, spake to the fathers, 
ly the prophets [in the spirit-world], hath, in these 
last days, spoken unto us hy his Son." That is, 
the commnnication is now more direct than it was 
before; there are fewer intervening spheres and 
mediators between those who are in the fourth 
cycle and God. 

47. Every cycle, or Dispensation, had its true 
Church, both in the spirit- world and on earth. 
These existed in a state of rapport with each 
other. The earth Church re|ieived its spiritual 
ministrations from the corresponding Church in 
the spirit-world. (See Heb. xii. 22 and 29.) It 
was the spiritual influx from that Church that was 
the Holy Ghost, or (as it ought to be rendered) 
Holy Spirit; for in the original languages the 
Holy Spirit is always designated by the neuter 
gender, it. It is the ^^ anointing," blessing, or 
"unction," of the appointed lead in the spirit 
Church. 

48. Every Church had its own Holy Spirit ; and 
when it is said that "holy men of old wrote as 
they were moved by the Holy Ghost," it implies 



112 SHAKEHS AND SHAKEBI8M. 

that it was the Holy Spirit of their Dispensation, 
and of its Church in the spirit-sphere ; which Holy 
Ghost would sanction and bless such things as 
were appropriate to that degree of the work of 
God, and to that cycle, or Dispensation. 

49. Unless this idea of a plurdlity of Holy 
Spirits, as well as a plurality of cycles and 
Churches, be received and borne in mind, in read- 
ing the Scriptures, darkness and confusion of mind 
must ensue. 

50. Jesus, in speaking of John the Baptist, said : 
" Of all that had been born of women, there had 
not arisen a greater than John,'' as a spiritual 
man, up to that time. " John was filled with the 
Holy Spirit from his mother's womb." If there 
were but one Holy Spirit, this would place' John 
very high. But the fact is, John never became a 
Christian at all on earth; he lived and died a 
Jew, Consequently,. John was not baptized with 
any higher spiritual influence than the Holy Spirit 
of the Jewish Church. And Jesus said, " He that 
is least in the kingdom of heaven, is greater than 
he" — tJohn. 



DOCTEINES OF THE CHUBCH. 113 

51. Jesus promised that, when he should come 
into the spirit-world, he would send his disciples 
the Comforter, or Holy Spirit, " In my Father's 
house are many mansions. I go to prepare a place 
for you." Jesus had first to establish the Church 
of the third Dispensation in the spirit-world, be- 
fore he could send them its Holy Spirit, or that 
there could be a pentecostal day. 

62. I will pray the Father, and He will give 
give you another Comforter, which is the Holy 
Spirit." Thus Jesus promised plainly to send 
them another Holy Ghost, distinct from any they 
had theretofore received, being the Holy Ghost of 
the f/rst Christian Church. 

63. The second Christian Church has also its 
Holy Spirit, and is the Church of » the last Dispen- 
sation, or cycle. The Holy Spirit and influence 
proceeding from this Church in the spirit-world, is 
the Ji/re with which John said Jesus would baptize 
souls ; which fire will burn up the generative 
nature, while (at the same time) it is spiritual food, 
and creates souls anew in the resurrection, or 

regenerative state. Under its guidance, they seek 

8 



114 SHAESBS ANI> SHAEEBISM. 

and find '' those things that are above'' the earthly 
order, where Jesus and Christ exist. 



PART IV. 

JTTDGMENT DAY, AND OOmFBBaiOS OF BINS. 

54. A radical and most important principle in 
the Shaker, or second Christian Church, is the 
oral confession of sins to God^ in the presence of 
one or two witnesses. 

55. This rests upon the premises that the natu- 
ral man never has seen, and never will see, Qoi 
personally, either in this or any other world. 
Therefore the judgment, as well as the mercy and 
goodness, of God, must necessarily be administered 
to souls through agencies appointed by a Divine 
revelation from God, for that express purpose, in 
all cycles and true Churches. This was the law 
and practice under the three preceding Dispensa- 
tions, in^ the respective Churches thereof, while 
standing in rectitude. 

56. The Mosaic Law said : " If a man sin, and 



DOCTBIKES OF THE CHTJ»OH. 115 

commit any of the things that are forbidden to be 
done, he shall confess that he hath sinned in that 
thing * and he shall bring his trespass oifering 
unto the Lord, for his sin which he hath sinned ; 
and the priests shall make an atonement for 
him." 

57. All those who came to John, and were bap- 
tized of water, did it " confessing their sins," as 
required by Moses. And even Jesus found his 
spiritual relation and union to John in the same 
order. 

58. In founding Christianity, Jesus declared 
there was "nothing covered that should not be 
revealed ; or hid that should not be made known." 
And, in ministering the Holy Spirit to the Apos- 
tles, after his crucifixion, he said : " Whosesoever 
sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them ; and 
whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained." 

59. The /alien Gentile Christian Church hav- 
ing abused this institution, in common with every 
Christian doctrine, does not invalidate the principle 
itself, nor render it nugatory (in the proper order) 
in the true Church, but conjirms it, as really as 



116 SHAKERS AND SHAKEBISM. 

does counterfeit coin pr(yoe that there is true 
money. Had there not been convincing evidence 
of this principle in the primitive Church, the 
Catholic priesthood could never have enforced its 
practice upon their votaries. 

60. In the second appearing of Christ, the con- 
fession of sins was again restored and established 
in perfect order. Ann Lee confessed her sins to 
Jane and James Wardley; and she continually 
taught and enjoined it as the first act of a repent- 
ant soul, and as being absolutely essential to the 
reception of the power to forsake sin, 

61. Mother Ann, and the elders with her, often 
revealed the most secret sins, that were purposely 
kept back by such as were opening their minds 
before them. Mother said : " The first step in 
obedience that any one of you can take, is to 
confess your sins to God, before his witnesses. 
Herein Christ is to be found as a Saviour, and a 
forgiver of sins, and nowhere else. For herein is 
contained the promise of God, but not in any other 
way." 

62. Again, she said : " They that honestly con- 



DOCTKINES OF THE CHURCH. 117 

fess all their sins, with a full determination to for- 
sake them forever, will find strength of God to 
forsake them ; and in taking up the cross against 
every known sin, and following Christ in the re- 
generation, in that life of obedience, they will be 
clothed in the righteousness of Christ, and become 
the sons and daughters of God ; being heirs of 
God, and joint-heirs with Jesus Christ." 

63. At another time Mother said : " When I 
confessed my sins, I labored to remember the time 
when, and the place where, I committed them. 
And when I had confessed them, I cried to G^d to 
know if my confession was accepted ; and by cry- 
ing to Grod continually, I travelled out of my loss." 

64. The experience of more than 70 years, by 
the Church, of the operation and effect of this 
principle (and practice) has well established it in 
the understanding, and confirmed it in the affec- 
tions, of the people called Shakers. 



118 BHAKEBS AND BHAKEBISM. 

PART' V. 
THE BIBLE. 

65. The Shakers hold the Bible to be a record 
of the most Di/ome Angelic ministrations to man, 
and more or less an imperfect record of the spirit- 
ual and religious experience and history of the 
most highly progressed portion or branch of the 
human family. 

66. They also believe that the state and con- 
dition of the seers, prophets, and prophetesses, or 
mediums, determined the quantity, and affected the 
quality, of every Divine revelation. The same 
may be said of the translators and translations of 
the Bible. 

67. It is thought by the Shakers that the book 
of the " H&vdatuynP^ has suffered less from inter- 
polations and mistranslations than any other ; 
partly by reason of the anathema it contains 
against all who should add to, or take from, its 
contents; but still more because the Spirit has 
clothed it with such a complexity of tropes, sym- 
bols, and figures, that it is utterly unintelligible to 



DOCTBIKES OF THE CHUBOH. 119 

the generative mao, and could not be comprehend- 
ed until the central event — ^the second appearing of 
Christ — had transpired ; that being the only key 
by which to unlock its mysteries, break its seals, 
and unfold its treasures of wisdom and truth, by 
baptizing souls with the Spirit that dictated it, 
and forming in them the character of the ^' Lion 
of the tribe of Judah ;" during which process, all 
the events described in that 'book would be accom- 
plished in them as individuals. And, indeed, it is 
a chart of ecclesiastical history. 



CHAPTER XI. 

BIOGRAPHY OF THE SIX FOUNDERS OF THE 

SHAKER SOCIETY. 

ANN LEE. 

1. Ann Lee was born February 29, 1*786, in 
Toad Lane (now Todd's Street), Manchester, 
England. Her father, John Lee, was a black- 
smith ; and, although poor, he was respectable in 
character, moral in principle, honest in his deal- 
ings, and industrious in his business. With him 
she resided until she embarked for America. Her 
mother was esteemed as a very pious woman. 
They had five sons and three daughters, who, as 
was then common for poor persons' children, were 
brought up to work, instead of being sent to 
school ; by which means, Ann acquired an indus- 
trious habit, but could neither write nor read. 

2. During her childhood and youth, she was em- 



ANN LEE. 121 

ployed in a cotton factory, and afterwards was a 
cutter of hatters' fur. She was also employed as 
cook in the Manchester infirmary, where she was 
distingaished for her neatness, faithfulness, pru- 
dence, and good economy. 

3. In appearance, Ann Lee was about the com- 
mon stature of women. She was thick-set, but 
straight, well-proportioned, and regular in form 
and features. Her complexion was light and fair, 
blue eyes, and light chesnut brown hair. Her 
countenance was mild and expressive, but grave 
and solemn. Her glance was keen and pene- 
trating ; her countenance inspired confidence and 
respect. Many called her beautiful. 

4. She possessed a sound, strong, and healthy 
physical constitution, and remarkable powers and 
faculties of mind. At times, when under the ope- 
ration of the Holy Spirit, her form and actions 
appeared to be divinely beautiful and angelic. 
The power and influence of her spirit was then be- 
yond description, and she spoke as "one having 
authority." 

5. In childhood, she exhibited a bright, saga- 



122 SHAEEBfl AND 8HAKEBISM. 

cious, and active genius. She was not addicted to 
play, like other children of her age, but was seri* 
ous and thoughtful. She was early the subject of 
religious impressions, and was often favored with 
heavenly visions. 

6. As she advanced in years she was strongly 
impressed with a sense of the deep depravity of 
human nature, and of the odiousness of sin, espe- 
cially the impure and indecent nature of sexual 
coition for mere gratification. To her mother she 
often expressed her feelings respecting these things, 
and earnestly desired to be kept and preserved 
from sin, and from those abominations her soul so 
much abhorred. 

7. But, notwithstanding her repugnance to the 
marriage state, through the importunities of her 
relations, she was induced to be married to Abra- 
ham Stanley, a blacksmith, by whom she had four 
children, who died in their infancy. 

8. She continued to reside at her father's house ; 
but the convictions of her youth often returned 
upon her with much force, which at length brought 
her under excessive tribulation of soul, in which 






ANN LKE. 133 

she sought earnestly for deliverance from the bond- 
age of sin, and gave herself no rest, day or night, 
but often spent whole nights in laboring and crying 
to God to open some way of salvation. 

9. In the year 1758, and 23d year of her age, 
she united herself to a society called Shakers which 
was under the ministration of Jane and James 
Wardley, formerly of the Quaker order. The 
people of that society were of blameless deport- 
ment, and were distinguished for the clearness and 
swiftness of their testimony against sin, the strict- 
ness of their moral discipline, and for the purity 
of their lives. 

10. The light of this people led them to an 
open confession of every sin they had committed, 
and to take up a full and final cross against every- 
thing they knew to be evil. This endowed them 
with great power over sin; and here Ann found 
that protection she had so long desired, and which 
corresponded with her faith at that time. She 
was baptized into the same Spirit, and by degrees 
travelled to the full knowledge and experience of 
all the spiritual truths of the Society. 



124 SHAKERS AND SHAKERISM. 

11. To her followers she said : " I love the day 
that I first received the Gospel. I call it my birth- 
day. I cried to God, without intermission, for 
three days and three nights, that He would give 
me true desires. And when I received a gift of 
God, I did not go away and forget it, and travel 
no further ; but I stood faithful, day and night, 
warring against all sin, and praying to God for de- 
liverance from the very nature of sin. And other 
persons need not expect to find power over sin 
without the same labor and travel of soul. 

12. " I felt such a sense of my sins that I was 
willing to confess them before the whole world. I 
confessed my sins to my elders, one by one, and 
repented of them in the same manner. When my 
elders reproved me, I felt determined not to be re- 
proved twice for the same thing, but to labor to 
overcome the evil for myself. 

13. " Soon after I set out to travel in the way 
of God, I labored a-nights in the work of God. 
Sometimes I labored all night, continually crying 
to God for my own redemption. Sometimes I 
went to bed and slept ; but in the morning, if I 



ANN LEE. 125 

could not feel that sense of the work of God that I 
did before I slept, I would labor all night. This 
I did many nights, and in the daytime I put my 4/ 
hands to work, and my heart to God ; and when I 
felt weary and in need of rest, I labored for the 
power of God, and the refreshing operations thereof 
would release me, so that I felt able to go to my 
work again. 

• 14. ^^ Many times, when I was about my work, 
I have felt my soul overwhelmed with sorrow. I 
used to work as long as I could keep it concealed, 
and then would go out of sight, lest any one should 
pity me with that pity which was not of God. In 
my travel and tribulation my sufferings were so 
great, that my flesh consumed upon my bones, 
bloody sweat pressed through the pores of my 
skin, and I became as helpless as an infant. And 
when I was brought through, and born into the 
spiritual kingdom, I was like an infant just born 
into, the natural world. They see colors and ob- 
jects, but they know not what they see. It was 
so with me ; but before I was 24 hours old, I saw^ 
and I knew what I saw." 



126 8HAEEBS AND SHAKEBISM. 

15. Ann was wrought upon after this manner for 
the space of nine years. Yet she often had inter- 
vals of releasement, in which her bodily strength 
and^ vigor was sometimes miraculously renewed; 
and, at times, her soul was filled with heavenly 
visions and Divine revelations. By these means 
the way of God and the nature of his work gradu- 
ally opened upon her mind with increasing light 
and understanding. 

16. The Divine manifestations she received from 
time to time were communicated to the Society, 
and tended greatly to enlighten the minds and 
strengthen the faith of the members, and to in- 
crease and confirm the testimony. Her mind, ever 
intent upon the grdat work of salvation, was greatly 
afiected concerning the lost state of mankind. But 
the real foundation of that loss was still concealed 
from her view ; nor could' 'she see any prospect of 
recovery under the existing circumstances ; for she 
had long been convinced that there was nothing in 
all the professions and practices of professors that 
could save them from sin here, or furnish to them 
any reasonable hope of salvation hereafter. 



ANN LBE. 13T 

17. She spent much time in earnest and inces- 
sant cries to God, to show her the foundation of 
man^B loss, what it was, and wherein it consisted ; 
and how the way of salvation could be discovered 
and effectually opened to mankind in the state they 
were then in, and how the great work of redemp- 
tion was to be accomplished. 

18. The ultimate fruit of the labor and suffering 
of soul that Ann passed through was to purify and 
fitly prepare her for becoming a temple in whom 
the same Christ Spirit that had made a first ap- 
pearing to Jesus, at his baptism by John in Jordan 
(the river of Judgment), at which time he received 
the anointing which constituted him Jesus Christ, 
could make a second appearing ; and through whom 
the God of heaven could set up a Church, or 
" kingdom, which should never be destroyed ;'' for 
all previous Churches had been destroyed by and 
through the operation of the fleshly lusts of their 
own members. They all commenced in the Spirit, 
and with a cross ; but, through self-indulgence, 
*' ended in the flesh." 

19. While Ann, for her testimony against 



128 SHAKERS AND SHAKEBISM. 

'^ fleshly lusts, which war against the soul," was 
imprisoned in Manchester, England, she saw Jesus 
Christ in open vision, who revealed to her the 
most astonishing views and Divine manifestations 
of truth, in which she had a perfect and clear 
sight of the " mystery of iniquity," the root and 
foundation of all human depravity, and of the very 
act of transgression committed by Adam and Eve 
in the garden of Eden. 

20. Thus it was made plain to her understand- 
ing how and in what manner all mankind were lost 
from God, and that a complete cross against the 
lusts of generation^ added to a full and explicit 
confession, before witnesses, o^ all the sins com- 
mitted under its influence, was the only possible 
efiectual remedy and means of salvation ; and also 
that absolute death to the generative or propagative 
life itself (in even its most innocent, uncorrupted 
state), was the preliminary^ step to the quickening 
and resurrection of the hidden spiritual life of God 
in the soul, which life is eternal in its nature and 
duration. 

21. Does not this disclose the meaning of the 



ANN LEE. 129 

Scripture phrase, " the Lamb slain from," cut off 
and elevated above, " the foundation'^ principle 
" of the" natural " world V^ which is the life of 
the innocent generative nature of man operating 
upon the procreative or propagative animal plane, 
that from the beginning was designed to be merely 
temporary — a stepping-stone to a superior order, 
as the worm state to that of the butterfly. And, 
after having subserved its use of producing and 
continuing the race, to be slain, and then sup- 
planted by the opening of the next discrete degree 
— the Divine-spiritual — in the soul, which is the 
ultimate and final resurrection. 

22. The foregoing is agreeable to the Scripture 
records, and is a fulfillment of the prophetic say- 
ings in the books of the " Revelation" and 
" Psalms" — " The marriage of the Lamb is come, 
and his wife hath made herself ready.^^ " She is 
arrayed in fine linen, clean and white ; for the fine 
linen is the righteousness of saints." The King 
and Queen mentioned in the forty-fifth Psalm do 
evidently show forth the dual order of the king- 
dom of Christ. No one disputes that the King 

9 



130 SHAKEBS AND BHAKEBISM. 

refers to Jesus ; but who is the Queen that stood 
at his right hand, adorned with gold of Ophir? to 
whom the Spirit saith, "Forget also thine (mn 
people^ and thy father* s house ; so shall the King 
greatly desire thy beauty ; for he is thy Lord, and 
worship thou him." 

23. " She is all glorious within ! her clothing 
is of wrought gold and fine needlework," very 
labored : all going to show that she had a great 
work to do, to fit her for the spiritual order, and to 
"make herself ready." 

24. The " virgins, her companions, that follow 
her," are the men and women who constitute the 
virgin Church. " They are brought with gladness 
and rejoicing to the King's palace." And the 
name of the Queen would be " remembered through 
all generations; and the people would praise her 
forever." 

25. And, " instead of her father's, should be her 
children, whom she would make princes in all the 
earth ;" being the spiritual posterity of the "King 
and Queen." All this is being literally accomplish- 
ed in the Church of Christ's Second Appearing. 



ANN LEE. 131 

26. From the time of the appearing of Christ to 
Ann, in the prison, she was received by the people 
as a Mother in spiritual things, and was thence- 
forth by them called Mother Arm. 

27. The exercises in their religious assemblies 
were singing and dancing, shaking and shouting, 
speaking with new tongues, and prophesying, with 
all those various gifts of the Holy Spirit known in 
the Primitive Church. These gifts progressively 
increased until the time of the full establishment 

ft 

of the Church in America. 

28. From that time (17T0) Mother Ann, by the 
immediate revelation of Christ, bore an open testi- 
mony against all lustful gratifications, as the source 
and foundation of human corruption and misery. 
She testified in the most plain and pointed manner 
that no soul could follow Christ in the regenera- 
tion, while living in the works of natural generation. 

29. Her testimony was often delivered with such 
mighty spiritual power, accompanied with so heart- 
searching and souUquickening a spirit, that it 
seemed to penetrate every secret of the heart. 
But, to thoye who rejected her testimony, it often 



132 BHAEEBS AKD 8HAKERISM. 

had the effect of arousiDg in them the most bitter 
and relentless spirit of persecution, more especially 
among high professors in the popular churches, in 
which the lusts of the world and religion were 
and are combined. 

30. The ministration of power over all sin, 
attended with visions, revelations, and other spir- 
itual gifts, was the seal of Mother Ann's testimony 
to those who received it. 

31. The immediate cause, or pretense, of the 
imprisonment already referred to, was dancing, 
shouting, shaking, etc., in the worship of God, on 
the Sabbath day — " Sahhath hreakmgP 

32. These meetings excited public attention, and 
stirred up the malignant feelings, of many, both 
professors (especially of the clergy) and profane, 
of almost every class and description, to such a 
degree of enmity, that, by formal opposition and 
tumultuous mobs, open persecution and secret 
malice, the life of Ann was many times in great 
jeopardy. 

33. She was often shamefully and cruelly abused, 
and several times imprisoned. She was once drag- 



ANN LEE. 133 

ged out of the meeting by a mob, and cast into a 
prison in Manchester. They put her in a cell so 
small that she could not straighten herself, and, 
with the design of starving her to death, kept her 
there fourteen days without food ; nor was the door 
opened during all that time. She had nothing to 
eat or drink, except some wine and milk mixed, 
put into the bowl of a tobacco-pipe, and conveyed 
to her by inserting the stem through the key-hole 
once every 24 hours. This was done by James 
Whittaker, when a boy, whom Mother Ann brought 
up. When taken out of prison, her enemies were 
astonished to see her walk oif, looking as well as 
when she entered. 

34. " On another occasion," she said, " a great 
mob came against me, determined to put an end to 
my existence. They took me into the high road, 
and ordered me to advance. In submission thereto, 
T made the attempt, but was soon knocked down 
with clubs ; and after I got up and began to walk, 
I was kicked every few steps for two miles. I then 
felt almost ready to give up the ghost, and was 
faint with thirst. While I was suffering by the 



134 SHAKKR8 AND 6HAKEBISM. 

t 

merciless mob, not one friend was allowed to fol- 
low me. But God in his mercy remembered me, 
and sent a deliverer. 

35. '' A certain nobleman living some distance, 
w^ho knew nothing of what was passing, was re- 
markably wrought upon in his mind, and urged by 
his feelings to go ; but where, or for what cause, 
he did not know. He ordered his servant to fetch 
his horse immediately. The servant went in haste, 
but the nobleman's anxiety was so great that he 
sent a messenger after his servant to hasten him. 
Having mounted his horse, he rode as if it had 
been to save his own life, as he afterwards told 
me. He came to a large concourse of persons, 
and on being informed^hat their business waa, he 
rode up to the place where I was, and sharply re- 
proved the mob for their abuse and cruel conduct, 
and dispersed them, and I was restored to my 
friends.'' 

36. Mother Ann was repeatedly delivered from 
imminent danger by the same invisible power that 
induced this nobleman to release her. At one time 
a mob attempted to bind her with ropes, but were 



ANN LEE. 135 

unable to do so by reason of the spiritual power 
bj which she was exercised. 

37. At another time she was accused of bias- 
phermj^ and was told that her tongue should be 
bored through with a hot iron, and her cheek 
branded. She was brought before four ministers 
of the Established Church, with a view to obtain 
judgment against her. They asked her to speak 
in other tongues, but she told them that unless she 
should feel the power of God she could not do 
that. She was soon operated upon, and spoke for 
four hours of the wonderful works of God. 

38. These clergymen were great linguists, and 
they testified that she had spoken in seventy-two 
different tongues. This had the effect of causing 
them to advise the mob not to molest her, which 
only disappointed and enraged them, and they 
resolved themselves into her judges and execu- 
tioners, and decided to stone her to death as a 
hlasphemer, 

39. The mob then took Mother Ann, William 
Lee, and James and Daniel Whittaker into a val- 
ley outside the town ; and having provided them- 



136 '^ SHAEEBS AND BHAKEBISM. 

selves with stones suitable in size and number, they 
threw them at their victims, but could not hit either 
of them. They then fell into contention among 
themselves, and abandoned their wicked design. 

40. Mother Ann said : " While they were 
throwing the stones I felt myself surrounded by 
the presence of God, and my soul was filled with 
love. I knew they could not kill me, for my work 
was not done ; therefore I felt joyful and comfort- 
able, while my enemies felt confusion and distress." 

41. Mother Ann related an instance of persecu- 
tion she received from one of her brothers thus : — 
" One of my brothers, being greatly enraged, said 
he was determined to overcome me ; so he brought 
a staff about the size of a broom-handle, and came 
to me as I was sitting in a chair, singing by the 
power of God. He beat ,me over the face and 
nose with the staff, till one end of it was much 
splintered. I sensibly felt and saw the bright rays 
of the glory of God pass between my face and the 
staff, and I did but just feel the blows. He con- 
tinued beating until he was so far spent that he 
called for drink. He then began again with the 



ANN LEE. 187 

other end of the staff, and I felt my breath like 
healing balsam, which healed me, so that I felt no 
harm from the strokes." 

42. ^^ At another time [she said], in the even- 
ing, I was informed by a friend that there was a 
mob after me. I ran out to the back side of a 
hill, where there was a pond covered with ice. I 
laid down upon the ice, and remained there all 
night, in great peace and consolation, and did not 
take cold." These were but a small part of the 
persecutions suffered by Mother Ann. 

43. On one occasion a man started from Man- 
chester to go to the king, to obtain a license to 
banish Mother Ann and her followers from the 
country ; but on the way he died, as was believed, 
by a judgment of God. Some others of their bit- 
ter persecutors met with untimely deaths in an un- 
usual manner ; others of them were deeply con- 
victed ; and fear fell upon the remainder. 

44. For two years previous to their leaving 
England, persecution entirely ceased, and they 
enjoyed their faith in peace, and worshiped God 
unmolested. 



138 SHAKERS AND 8HAKEKISM. 

45. On the 19th of May, 1774, Mother Ann, 
Abraham Stanley (her husband), William Lee, 
James Whittaker, John Hocknell, Richard Hock, 
nell, James Shepherd, Mary Partington, and 
Nancy Lee embarked for America, in the ship 
Mariah, Captain Smith, of New York. All of 
them had received spiritual manifestations, and 
the Spirits directed them to repair to America, 
and informed them that the Church of Christ's 
Second Appearing would be established in that 
country. 

46. Mother Ann said : " I knew by the revela- 
tion of God, that Grod had a chosen people in 
America ; I saw some of them in vision ; and 
when I met with them in America, I knew them. 
I had a vision of America : I saw a large tree, 
every leaf of which shone with such brightness as 
made it appear like a burning torch, representing 
the Church of Christ, which will yet be established 
in this land. 

47. " Previous to our coming we called a meeting, 
and there were so many gifts (such as prophecies, 
revelations, visions, and dreams) in confirmation 



ANN LEE. 139 

of a former revelation for us to come, that some 
could hardly wait for others to tell their gifts. We 
had a joyful meetiDg, and danced till morning." 

48. James Whittaker, one of Mother Ann's 
companions and followers, said : ^' Before we em- 
barked, Mother Ann told the captain that he 
should not have whereof to accuse us, except it 
were concerning the law of our Gt>d. And whea 
we went forth to praise God in songs and dances, 
the captain was greatly offended, and threatened to 
throw us overboard if we repeated the offence. 

49. " But we, believing it better to obey God 
rather than man, when we felt a gift of God, again 
went forth in the same manner to worship Him, 
trusting in Him for protection. This so greatly 
enraged the captain, that he attempted to put his 
threat into execution. 

60. '' This was in the time of a storm, and the 
vessel sprang a leak, occasioned by the starting of 
a plank ; and the water flowed in so rapidly, that, 
although all the pumps were put into use, it 
gained upon us very fast. The whole crew were 
greatly alarmed, and the captain turned as pale 



140 SHAKEB8 AND BHAKERISM. 

aa a corpse, and said all would perish before 
morning. 

61. "But Mother maintained her confidence in 
God, and said, * Captain, be of good cheer 5 there 
shall not a hair of our heads perish ; we shall ar- 
rive safe in America. I just saw two bright angels 
of God standing by the mast, through whom I re- 
ceived this promise.' She then encouraged the 
seamen, and she and her companions assisted at 
the pumps, when there came a great wave, which 
struck the ship with such violence that the plank 
was forced into its place, and all were soon re- 
leased from the pumps. 

52. " After this, the captain gave us full liberty 
to worship God according to the dictates of our 
own consciences, and promised never to molest 
us again, and during the remainder of the voyage 
we were treated with kindness. In New York, 
the captain declared that, if it had not been for 
these people, he should never have reached 
America." 

53. Having landed in New York (August 6, 
1774), the company had to divide, to seek employ- 



ANN LEE. 141 

ment in different directions ; for, being poor, man- 
ual labor was their only means of subsistence. 

54. Mother Ann remained in New York ; and 
the connection between her and Abraham Stanley 
was soon after dissolved by the latter marrying 
another woman ; shortly after which, Mother Ann 
went up the river to Albany, and from thence to 
Niskeuna, (a wilderness, but) now Watervliet. 
Here the company was reunited, and remained 
very secluded for about three years and a half. 

65. In the spring of 1780, the converts of a 
very remarkable religious revival at New Lebanon, 
N. Y., began to visit them, many of whom united 
with them; and thus the material was prepared 
for a Shaker Society at that place. Consequent 
upon this addition to their number, opposition and 
persecution were excited ; and, as the revolution- 
ary war was then in progress, some designing men 
accused them of being unfriendly to the patriotic 
cause^ from the fact of their bearing a testimony 
against war iii general, 

56. They were arraigned before the commission- 
ers of Albany, under the above charge, and were 



142 SHAKEE8 AND SHAKEEISM. 

required to purge themselves from the suspicion of 
being enemies in disguise, by taking the oath of 
allegiance. But swearing was also contrary to 
their faith. 

57. Whereupon David Darrow, Joseph Meach- 
am, and John Hocknell were put into prison ; then 
Hezekiah Hammond and Joel Pratt ; and, finally, 
Mother Ann, Mary Partington, Wm. Lee, James 
Whittaker, and Calvin Harlow were also imprisoned 
in Albany, in July of this year. 

68. These were the leaders and elders of the 
people. They were treated with kindness by the 
commissioners ; and many sensible, candid persons 
expressed their displeasure at the injustice and in- 
consistency of imprisoning an innocent, harmless 
people for their religious faith, while the country 
itself was struggling for freedom of person and lib- 
erty of conscience. 

59. The elders were much visited in prison, and 
many received faith in the people and their princi- 
pies, and came and confessed their sins, and 
'^showed their deeds?'^ Such, indeed, was the 
power of God that accompanied the word and testi- 



ANN LEE. 143 

mony, that often some in the crowd were seized 
with conviction ; and open confession of every 
known sin was made through the grating of the 
prison, so mightily grew the Word of God, and pre- 
vailed. Thus, unwittingly, their persecutors took 
the most effectual means to spread the very work 
they aimed to suppress. 

60. Believers were allowed the privilege of com- 
muning with them in prison, and administered to 
their necessities. Mother Ann, however, was soon 
separated from the company, and, accompanied by 
Mary Partington, was conveyed down the river, 
with the intention of banishing her to the British 
army ; but, providentially failing in that, she was 
lodged in the jail at Poughkeepsie. 

61. Near the close of the same year, the elders 
in Albany were released from prison, without any 
trial, hy order of Governor George Clinton^ after 
being confined six months, without any cause, ex- 
cept their religious faith. And being informed by 
those released of the imprisonment of Mother Ann 
at Poughkeepsie, he released her also. This was 
in December, 1780, when she joyfully returned to 



144; SHAKERS AND SHAKEBISM. 

her spiritual children, to their great comfort and 
consolation. 

62, In May, 1781, Mother Ann and the elders 
left Watervliet, on a missionary journey to Har- 
vard, Mass., and other places in the Eastern 
States, and did not return until 1783, having been 
absent two years and four months. During this 
journey many persons, in different places, received 
the Gospel and became joined to them. 

68. Again they were subjected to the most bit- 
ter and violent persecutions. They were whipped, 
beaten with clubs, stoned, kicked, dragged about 
by their legs and arms, and sometimes by the hair 
of their heads ; and they were driven from place 
to place in the most cruel and abusive manner, so 
that many of them narrowly escaped with their 
lives, and numbers of them carried through life the 
marks and scars of the wounds which they had re- 
ceived from their inhuman persecutors. Through 
all these trying scenes they were evidently protect- 
ed and supported by the power and providence of 
God, so that no life was suffered to be taken. 

64. Some singular and dreadful judgments fol- 



AJNN LEE. 145 

lowed the prominent actors in those persecutions ; 
and it became a proverb among the world : " These 
Shaker drivers are all coming to nought;" and the 
persecutions finally altogether ceased, but were the 
effectual means of spreading the faith and increas- 
ing the number of the believers in the second 
appearing of Clirist. 

65. Mother Ann, having finished her work on 
earth, departed this life, at Watervliet, on the 8th day 
of September, 1784, aged 48 years and six months. 

66. [Christopher Love (who was beheaded under 
Cromwell) prophesied that " Out of thee, O Eng- 
land, shall a bright star arise, whose light and 
voice shall make the hea/Dena quake and knock 
under with submission to the blessed Jesus." To 
whom could this apply, if not to the Divine light 
and work of Mother Ann ?] 

67. Mother Ann, being inquired of, by Joseph 

Meacham, as to how it was that she, being a 

woman, taught in the Church, and was even the 

Head of it, replied : " The or<ler of God in the 

natural creation is a figure of the order of God in 

the spiritual creation. 

10 



146 SHAKEfiS AND SHAKEBISH. 

68. ^^ As in nature it requires a man and a 
woman to produce children, the man is first and 
the woman second in the government of the family; 
he is the father, and she the mother ; and the male 
and female children must be subject to their 
parents, and the woman subject to her husband, 
who is the first; and when the man is gone, the 
right of government does not belong to the chil- 
dren, but to the womcm : so is the famUy of 
Christ.'' 

69. Temporal economy she inculcated thtis : 
" You must be prudent and saving of every good 
thing that God blesses you with, that you may 
have to give to the needy. You could not make 
either a kernel of grain or a spear of grass grow, 
if you knew you must die for the want of it." 

70. " The Gospel [she saidj is the greatest 
treasure that souls can possess. Be faithful ; put 
your hands to work and your hearts to God. Be- 
ware of covetousness, which is as the sin of witch- 
craft. If you have anything to spare, give it to 
the poor." 

71. At another time, in addressing a company 



ANN UES. 147 

of Believers, she said : ^^ It is now spring of the 
year, and you have all had the privilege of being 
taught the way of God ; now you may all go home, 
and be faithful with your hands. Every faithful 
man will go and put up his fences in season, and 
will plow his ground in season, and will put his 
erops into the ground in season. Such a man may 
with confidence look for a blessing. 

72. ^^But the slothful and indolent will say: 
To'Tnorrow will do as weUj cmd to-morrow will 
do as well. Such a man never finds a blessing ; 
or, if he get anything, it is afterwa/rds^ and there 
seems to be no blessing in it. Just so he is in 
spiritual things. He will be slothful in the work 
of Gk)d, and will reap his reward. He that is un- 
faithful in the unrighteous mammon, how can he be 
trusted with the true riches V^ 

73. To a sister she said : '*• Be faithful to keep 
the Gospel; be neat and industrious; keep your 
family^s clothes clean and decent. See that your 
house is kept clean, and your victuals prepared in 
good order ; that when the brethren come home 
from their hard work, they may bless you, and eat 



148 SHAREBS AND 6HAKEBISM. 

their food with thankfulness, without murmuring, 
and be able to worship God in the beauty of holi- 
ness. Watch, and be careful ; don't speak harsh- 
ly, nor oast reflections upon them. Let your words 
be few, and seasoned with grace.'' 

74. To another sister she said : " You must 
remember the poor and needy, the widow and the 
fatherless ; and deal out your bread to the hungry, 
and your clothes to the naked. Your naturee will 
say, They may work, and get these things for 
themselves. But Christ said, ^ Ovoe to hvm, that 
ask&th? 

76. " You must put away your covetousness, 
your lust, and your filthiness, and be prepared for 
the increase of the Qospel. For the time will 
come when this Oospel will be preached to all na- 
tions, and many will flock to Zion to hear the 
Word of the Lord. Remember the cries of those 
who are in need and trouble, that when you are in 
trouble God may hear your cries." 

76. To other sisters she said : ^^ Little children 
are innocent, and they should never be brought out 
of it. If brought up in simplicity, they would 



AKN LEE. 149 

receive good as easy as evil. Do not blame them 
for every little faalt. Teach them obedience ; let 
your word be law. Never speak to them in a pas- 
sion ; it will put devils into them. When I was a 
child my mind was taken up with things of God, 
so that I saw heavenly visions instead of trifling 
toys. Do all your work as though you had a thou- 
sand years to live, and as though you were going 
to die to-morrow." 

7T- Of herself, Mother Ann said : " Once my 
feet walked in forbidden paths ; my hands handled 
unclean things ; and my eyes saw nothing of God 
aright. Now my eyes see, my ears hear, and my 
hands handle the Word of life.^* To some she 
said : " You never can enter the kingdom of God 
with hard feelings against any one. For God is 
love; and if you love God, you will love one 
another." 

78. In addressing an assembly of Believers, at 
Watervliet, shortly after her return from Pough- 
keepsie, she spoke as follows : " You are called in 
relation to all the rest of mankind ; and through 
your faith and obedience they must receive the 



150 8HAKEBS AISTB SHAKEBIBM. 

Gospel. Pain and sufferings will never cease in 
the Church until all souls have heard the Gospel 
of salvation ; for this Gospel will be freely offered 
to all souls, and will be the savor of life unto life, 
or of death unto death. 

79. " The increase of the Gospel, at first, will 
be small ; bat the time will come when seals will 
embrace it by hundreds and by thousands ; for this 
testimony will overcome all nations. It will in- 
crease till the covering is taken off; then man- 
kind will see the rottenness of antichrist's founda- 
tion ; then those souls that are bound in their sins 
will call to the rocks and to the mountains to 
cover them. But the saints will never be over- 
come again by the beastly power of antichrist. 

80. ^^ The work of Gk)d, in this day, is an in- 
ward, spiritual work. It is not so great in ou^ 
ward appearance as it was in past Dispensations ; 
therefore souls must be very cautious how they treat 
this Gospel. For such as finally reject the testi- 
mony thereof in this world, will not have another 
day'^ equal to this ; nor until an offer of the Ck)spel 
shall have been made to the entire race of Adam. 



ANN L£E. 151 

81. Those who obey the Gospel on earth, taking 
np their cross as Jesus did, ^^ stand with him oh 
Mount Zion/' being of ^' the hundred and forty-four 
thousand :'^ these are in the first resurrection ; 
while those who receive and obey the Oospel in 
their disembodied state constitute the second fruits. 
This class is thus noticed by the Reyelator (Rev. 
vii. 9): '^ After this, I beheld, and lo, a great 
multitude, which no man could number, of all na- 
tions, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood 
before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed 
with white robes [righteousness], and palms [vic- 
tories they had gained] in their hands." 

82. These '^ cried, with a loud voice, Salvation 
to our God." And the question being asked, 
^^What are these which are arrayed in white 
robes'? and whence came they?" the answer was : 
" These are they which came out of great tribula- 
tion, and have washed their robes, and made them 
white in the blood [or by living the life] of the 
Lamb" in the spirit-world. 

88. Mother Ann said : " All souls will have an 
offer of the Gospel in this world, or in the world 



152 SHAKERS AND SHA£:££ISH. 

of spirits." And she added : " You have your 
day now. You can, by obedience, travel out of 
your loss, by taking up the cross that Jesus did« 
But souls in the world of spirits have to travel* 
through sufferings, passing from prison to prison, 
until they fittd the mercy of God," 

84. Disembodied souls are saved through suffer- 
ings, and by the labors of the '^ kings and priests 
unto God and the Lamb," who had followed the 
example of Jesus in the earth-life. And as Jesus 
'^ preached to the spirits in prison," so such, like 
him, are " baptized for the dead." (See 1 Cor. 
XV. 29.) 

85. Mother Ann also said : " Those who volun- 
tarily take up their crosses in this world, and 
faithfully endure to the end, will be more bright 
and glorious than any others. They will be the 
' kings and priests unto God.' " 

86. On a certain occa&ion she said : " Put not 
your trust -in any man or woman, but in the power 
and gift of God." Again, she said : " The room 
over your head is full of angels of God. I see 
them; and you could see them if you were re* 



ANK LXB. 163 

deemed. I look in at the windows of heaven, and 
see what there is the invisible world. I see the 
angels of Gk)d, and hear diem sing. I see the 
glories of God. I see Ezekiel Groodrich flying from 
one heaven to another." And, taming to the 
company present, she said, ^' Qo in, and join his 
resurrection.'' She then began to sing, and they 
praised the Lord in the dance. 

. 87* On another occasion she said : ^^ The Apos- 
tles, in their day, saw as through a glass darkly ; 
bat we see face to face, and see thin^p as they are, 
and converse with spirits, and see their states. 
The Gospel is preached to seals who have left the 
body. I see thoasands of the dead rising, and 
coming to jadgment, now, at this present time." 

88. She also said : ^^ If there be bat one called 
of a generation, and that seal be faithful, it will 
have to travel and bear for all its generation ; for 
the world will be redeemed by generations." She 
saw disembodied souls labormg for the power of 
God, and said that such were in a travail. 

89. One morniiig she said : ^' Last night I was 
under sufferings. A great number of the dead 



154: 8HAKEBS A^D SHAKElilSM. 

came to me. Some of them embraced the Gospel ; 
others chose rather to go to hell than confess their 
sins. I have seen, in vision, beautiful souls of 
men arrayed in white, all in the resurrection. 
There is no fear of their going back. As for hell, 
they have had enough of it ; and come back again 
into this world they can not. But poor man in the 
body is always in danger. 

90. " I have seen Jane in the world of spirits, 
praising God in the dance. I have seen young 
Jonathan Wood among the dead ; he was like claps 
of thunder among them, waking them up. I have 
been all night with the dead. I heard the arch- 
angel sound the trumpet, and I heard Ezekiel's 
voice roar from one prison to another, preaching to 
the dead ; and they gather to him, and are thank- 
ful to hear the Word of God. [This was soon 
after the decease of Ezekiel Goodrich.] And if 
you do not receive the Word of Gk)d which is 
spoken to you, the dead will ; for there is not one 
word of God lost that ever was spoken." 

91. Speaking of a particular person who had 
deceased, Mother Ann said : " Since that time he 



ANN LEE. 155 

has appeared to me again, and has arisen from the 
dead, and oome into the first heaven, and is travel- 
ling on to the second and third heavens." 

92. When any person knelt down to Mother 
Ann, she would say to them : " Do not kneel to 
me ; kneel to God. I am but your fellow-servant." 

93. Believers were not gathered into the order 
of community of goods during the lifetime of 
Mother Ann. She said : ^' The time will come 
when the Church will be gathered into order, but 
not till after my decease. Joseph Meacham is my 
first-bom son in America : he will gather the 
Church into order, but I shall not live to see it." 



CHAPTER XII. 

WILLIAM LEE. 

1. William Lee was the fourth son of John 
Lee, and the brother of Ann Lee. He was born 
in the year 1740, in Manchester, England. By 
trade he was a blacksmith. He came to America 
with his sister Ann. He possessed uncommon 
physical strength and fortitude of mind. In his 
religious faith and practice he was zealous and 
influential, and in times of persecution always firm 
and undaunted. He knew not the fear of man. 

2. He was married, and was an officer in the 
army — the Oxford Blues — previous to joining his 
sister Ann in her new system of religion. He 
described himself* as having been a very proud, 
haughty young man, fond of dress and gaiety. 



WILXJAM LEB. 157 

Bat, under the inflaenoe of his religious convic- 
tioDS, he forsook all, to be a follower of his sister 
Ann, and to her he was an invaluable assistant and 
protector ; the scars from wounds received in her 
defence he carried to his grave. 

8. At one time his skull was fractured by a blow 
from an iron boat-hook. Indeed, his sufferings of 
body and soul for the Gospel cause, as preached 
and lived by Mother Ann, were such that his 
companions said that, ^^ like Jesus, he was a man 
of sorrows, and acquainted with grief." 

4. He was richly endowed with spiritual gifts 
of visions and revelations, and many divine mani- 
festations ; he abounded in mercy, love, and charity, 
and his powerful spirit always maintained a swift 
testimony against all sin. 

5. He possessed a great degree of thankfulness 
for common blessings. At one time he said : " I 
fear you are not so thankful as you ought to be for 
the good things that Crod has provided for you ; 
but you eat and drink of these precious things 
without considering from whence they come. The 
sin of ingratitude is a great sin — see that you are 



158 SHAKEKS AND SHAXBBISM. 

not gailty of it. I often eat my food with thank- 
fulness and tears every mouthful I eat.'* He 
manifested the same thankful spirit even for water, 
whether to drink, or for any other use. 

6. To the brethren and sisters he said : ^^ Yoa 
ought to pass each other like angels. I know the 
condition of souls that have left the body. Where 
I see one soul in the body, I see a thousand in the 
world of spirits." 

7. He said : " War will never cease until God 
has finished His work with the nations of the earth. 
And, although it may be buried for a season, yet, 
like fire, it will break out with sevenfold increase 
among the nations of the earth. The same sword 
that has persecuted the people of God in past ages 
will be turned into the world among themselves, 
and it will never be sheathed till it has done its 
work." 

8. "We are poor [said he], but we are able 
to make many rich : poor afflicted people of God. 
Once I served God out of fear, but now I serve 
Him out of love. I love my Mother. Although 
she is my sister, yet she has become my 



WILLIAM LEE. 159 

Mother, and the Lord Grod has made me to love 
her." 

9. The gift of songs was peculiarly his, and he 
had a melodious and powerful voice, and was a 
beautiful and musical singer. He deceased July 
2l8t, 1784, aged 44 years. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

JAMES WHITTAKER. 

1. James Whittaker was the son of Jonathan 
Whittaker. His mother's maiden name was Ann 
Lee — probably a distant relation of Mother Ann. 
They were members of the Society under Jane 
and James Wardley, and subsequently embraced 
the Gospel. His father had an anxious feeling to 
come to America with Mother Ann, but was not 
able. He died in the faith. 

2. James was born February 28th9 VIBI, in 
Oldham, near Manchester, England. He received 
the testimony of the Gospel in his childhood, and 
used to accompany his parents to the meetings of 
Jane and James Wardley, and was faithful and 
obedient to the instructions of his teachers. In 
his youth he was placed under the care of Mother 
Ann, and by her was carefully instructed in the 



JAMES WHTXTAKKR. 161 

way of God. Having, by his faithfulness, gained 
a great portion of the light and power of the Gos- 
pel, he became eminently useful to her in the 
ministry. 

3. Concerning his early experience in the way 
of God, he gave the following particulars : ^^ I was 
brought up in the way of God by my Mother [Ann], 
and I knew no unclean thing. Yet, when my soul 
was waked up, I found myself a child of wrath. 
I then cried mightily to God. I do not think I 
spoke more than five words in a day ; and I verily 
thought the earth trembled under me for the 
space of a whole year. At this time I saw, by 
vision, my own soul with Mother's in America, 
and I heard all the conversation that passed be- 
tween us and the men that put us into prison in 
Albany ; and yet, during the whole time of my im- 
prisonment, I never once thought of my vision ; but 
as soon as we were set at liberty, it all came fresh 
to my mind." 

4. Among other eztraordiaary manifestations of 

God to him, in earlj life, are the two folloving, in 

his ovn words : " One day, as I was walking with 

11 



163 BHAKEBB AKD BHAKEBIBM. 

Mother, I felt the heavens open ; such flows of the 
heavenly manifestations and givings of Grod fell 
upon me in so marvelous a manner, that my soul 
was filled with inexpressible gbry ; and I felt such 
an overflowing of love to Mother, that I cried out, 
As the Lord liveth, and as my soul liveth, I will 
never leave thee nor forsake thee^" He added 
further : ^^ Mother then and there propheried that 
I should succeed her in .the ministry.'^ 

5. He said : '^ When we were in England, some 
of us had to go twenty miles to meeting. We 
travelled a-nights, on account of the persecution. 
One Saturday night, while on our journey, we sat 
down by the side of the road to %»,t some victuals. 
While I was sitting there I saw a vision of Ameri- 
ca; and I saw a large tree, every leaf of which 
shone with such brightness as made it appear like 
a burning torch, representing the Church of Christ 
which will yet be established in this land. After 
my company had refreshed themselves, they trav- 
elled on, and led me a considerable distance before 
my vision ceased." 

6. In his person, James was rather above the 



JAMES WHITTAEEB. 163 

common stature, well proportioned in form, of more 
than ordinary strength, and of great activity. His 
complexion was fair, his eyes black, and his hair 
was dark brown, and very straight. His counte- 
nance was open and placid, with a pleasing gravity 
that evinced the goodness of his heart, and the 
amiable mildness of his disposition. His voice 
was clear and solid, but mild and pleasant. In 
short, his visage, deportment, and conversation 
were all marked with an inexpressible quality, 
which could not but impress the feelings of a 
stranger with confidence and respect. It was not 
uncommon among strangers, on hearing him, to 
say, " I love to hear that James Whittaker 
speak." 

7* In his temper and disposition he was mild, 
gentle, and forbearing, yet firm, undaunted, and 
inflexible in his duty. So amiable was his deport- 
ment, and so winning his manners, that he often 
disarmed the most violent oppoaers of their rage. 
He possessed much meekness, humility, and sim- 
plicity of soul ; he was tender-hearted, kind, and 
charitable, and abounded in heavenly love. The 



164 SHAKEBS AI^D SHAKEBISM. 

sympathetic powers of his soul were such that, 
when he wept, it seemed as though no feeling heart 
could refrain from tears; and when he rejoiced, 
every soul that possessed the life of the Gospel 
could not but feel the power of his joy, and rejoice 
with him. 

8. In reproving sin he was sharp and powerful, 
yet wise and careful not to hurt the soul. In 
laboring with souls, in admonishing the careless, 
instructing the ignorant, strengthening the weak, 
and binding up the broken-hearted, he evidenced 
much wisdom. He knew how to come to souls in 
every situation, and to administer help in due 
season. 

9. He passed through many scenes of sorrow 
and affliction for the Gospel of salvation, and 
planted and nourished it in many souls. Being 
young while in England, he did not suffer so much 
persecution there as did Mother Ann and Father 
William and others ; yet he had his full share of 
sufferings to pass through, so that it might be truly 
BdAdythe sufferings of Christ ahcymided in him. 

10. In America he suffered much every way; 



JAMES WHITTAKEK. 165 

yet he always bore his sufferings with fortitude, 
and even with cheerfulness ; so that, when most 
cruelly abused by persecutors, he would often kneel 
down and pray for them with great fervency, some- 
times in the words of Christ, saying, " Father, for- 
give them, for they know not what they do." 

11. As he was brought up in the Gospel from 
his childhood, he possessed a great degree of purity 
of spirit. Indeed, it seemed as though every feel- 
ing of his soul breathed purity, righteousness, and 
love; hence he was at all times able to bear a 
strong testimony against all impurity, unrighteous- 
ness, and every kind of evil. He often said, 
" The Gospel is without fault ; it is as straight as 
straightness ; it is pure as the heavens ; and if you 
do not obey it, you will lose your souls." 

12. With tears rolling from his eyes, he fre- 
quently expressed his love to God, and his thank- 
fulness for the Gospel, in the foUowiug language : 
" O how precious is the way of God to my thirsty 
soul ! I feel the love of God continually flowing 
into my soul, like rivers of living water ! It is 
sweeter to my taste than honey in the honey-comb * 



166 6HAESBB AND 8HAKSBISM. 

I know that God owns me for his son, and yet I 
will pray to Him. I know how to pray, and I 
know how to be thankfal for the Grospel. Even 
my breath is continual prayer to God.'' 

13. He used to say : " I could willingly lay 
down my life for my brethren, if I were called to 
it ; for I feel that degree of love for them, that 
they are near and dear to me like my own soul. 
My only treasure upon earth is in them that be- 
lieve. I have no relation except in the people of 
God. They who are faithful to serve God are my 
relations ; they are my interest and my treasure, 
and all I have is theirs." 

14. Some individuals, who had great faith in 
Mother Ann, and were zealous during her minis- 
tration, suffered great loss after she was taken 
from them ; for their faith centred in her person, 
and not in the revelation and power of God which 
dwelt in her, and which was transmitted through 
her to her successors. Father James felt a deep 
sense of their danger from this source ; and being 
impressed with the unspeakable worth of souls, and 
the great importance of a deep and genuine work 



JAMES WHITTAKIEB. 167 

of salvation in every soul, he did not cease to warn 
the people, with many tears, to be faithful and 
persevering, so as not to lose that which they had 
alneady gained, by neglecting to labor for an in- 
crease of the Grospel in their own souls. 

16. In solemn warnings to the people, and for 
their encouragement, he used to say : " Wherever 
you are, whatever may betide you, how dark 
soever things may appear, how unjustly soever you 
may suffer, keep your faith ; for the time will come 
when all wrongs will be righted, and every one will 
receive a just reward. I am not ashamed to build 
up your faith ; for your faith is most holy. But I 
know you have infirmities, and I pray that the for- 
bearance of Gk)d may be lengthened out to you, 
till you learn to do right ; for you must have an 
exceeding righteousness; your righteousness must 
exceed the righteousness of the scribes and phari- 
sees. Therefore, preserve within your hearts that 
holy treasure which will keep you in time of trouble. 
Keep your faith ; for the end of your faith will be 
the salvation of your souls. When I am gone, 
and you see the branches grow and flourish, then 



168 BHAKEBS AND SHAKESISH. 

know ye that th6 root is holy. I have ventured 
my life and soul among you, and you have received 
the Gospel, and you are welcome to it." 

16. Father James, in seasons of Divine wor- 
ship, often publicly abased himself before God, in 
deep humiliation of soul. One Sabbath day, at 
Harvard, he addressed a large concourse of persons 
with great solemnity, and evidently under a great 
weight of the power of Grod, which brought a very 
solemn and affecting sensation upon the whole 
assembly. He then knelt down, and the Believers 
immediately fell upon their knees, and many other 
persons, who were deeply affected with his dis- 
course, did the same. While thus on his knees, 
in profound humiliation, he uttered these words: 
" I am but a poor worm of the dust, and a very 
little one, too. I feel oftentimes as though I could 
crumble into the dust before God." He often 
abased himself in this manner. 

17. At another time, in a public assembly, at 
Enfield, before he began to speak, he knelt down, 
and, in tribulation of spirit, said : " God has 
committed the Gospel to my trust." He paused, 



JAMES WHITTAKEK. 169 

while the tears flowed plentifully down his cheeks. 
He then proceeded : " I pray that God would lay 
nothing to my charge. Christ is revealed. I feel 
his power in sorrow and in love. Ood has blessed 
me with a broken heart and godly sorrow for sin." 
After this he delivered a very aflfecting discourse, 
in which he preached the Gospel of self-denial and 
the cross, and urged the absolute necessity of con- 
fessing and forsaking all sin, and concluded in 
these words ; " As you treat this Gospel, so God 
will treat you. If you slight it, God will slight 
you ; if you regard it, God will regard you. For, 
as the testimony of Noah condemned the old world, 
so shall this testimony condemn the present gene- 
ration." 

18. Father James often solemnly warned Be- 
lievers not to suffer themselves to be overshadowed 
and darkened with those things which have a tend- 
ency to shut the gift of God from the soul. " I 
warn you, brethren," said he, " not to be overcome 
with the cares of this world, lest your souls lose 
the power of God, and you become lean and bar- 
ren." " The way to labor for the Gospel is to 



170 SHAKESB AND BHAKEBISM. 

keep joar minds exercised in laboring upon the 
things that belong to your peace, and not on the 
things of the world ; for if you give your minds to 
labor upon the things of the world, they will be- 
come corrupted.'' " You ought to be watchful 
over your words at all times, and be careful to 
know that you speak the truth ; and not tell things 
you do not know to be true, in such a manner as to 
deceive others. You ought to represent things as 
they are, and not deceive one another : it is lying ; 
it is wicked." 

19. He used often to say : " Be what you seem 
to be, and seem to be what you really are. Don't 
carry two faces. You that dare use deceit, remem- 
ber what I say : God will yet meet you in ar strait 
place." In reproving Believers, he used to say : 
" If you don't love to hear of these things, then 
leave them off. Pat away the cause, and the effect 
will cease. I will know no man by his speech, 
but by the fruit he brings forth. Ye who have 
believed in God, be careful to maintain good 
works." 

20. In the time of Shay's insurrection in Mas- 



JAME8 WHITTAKEB. 171 

sachusetts, some of the Believers, in expressing 
their sentiments, manifested some party feelings 
concerning that event ; but Father James rebuked 
that spirit, and said : " They who give way to a 
party spirit, and are influenced by the divisions 
and contentions of the world, so as to feel for one 
political party more than for another, have no part 
with me. The spirit of party is the spirit of the 
world ; and whoever indulges in it, and unites with 
one evil spirit against another, is oflF from Chris- 
tian ground." 

21. In addressing a public assembly of Believers 
at Ashfield, he said : " You ought to fear God in 
all you do. When you are about your work, you 
ought to fear God. And even in the gifts of God, 
and under the operations of the power of God, you 
ought to keep the fear of God, lest, by feeling re- 
leasement in those gifts, you run into lightness. 
There are many pious souls in this world, who live 
up to the best light they know, that have never 
heard the sound of this Gospel ; but, except your 
righteousness shall exceed theirs, you will in no- 
wise enter into the kingdom of heaven. Heaven 



172 SHAKEBS AND SHAKEBISM. 

is a place of joy and tranquillity to those who find 
it. But I am jealous, and with a godly jealousy, 
too, that there are some here that never will find 
it." He further said : " Those who are called by 
the Gospel when they are children, and are faith- 
ful and obedient, and keep out of sin, will be the 
flower of heaven and the glory of paradise." 

22. One Sabbath day, at Harvard, when the 
Believers were assembled together for worship, and 
were all sitting in profound silence. Father James, 
under a solemn weight of the power of God, 
suddenly raised both his hands, and exclaimed: 
^' Heavens ! heavens ! heavens !" and instantly the 
house was shaken, and the casements clattered, as 
though the house had been shaken by a mighty 
earthquake. At another time, under a similar 
spiritual impression, he uttered the words, " Peace! 
peace ! peace ! What peace I feel ! The peace 
of the Gospel is worth more than all the treasures 
of this world." 

23. One day he was speaking respecting the 
privilege and call of Believers to rise out of the 
generative order, with all its animal, selfish ties 



JAMES WHITTAKEB. 173 

and relations, and he said : ^^ I hate these things, 
as I hate the smoke of the bottomless pit. And, 
in lieu thereof, I behold in open vision the angelic 
hosts, and join in their melodious songs of praise 
and adoration." 

24. One evening, in meeting, he said : " I should 
be glad to speak a few words, though I would not 
speak anything that is too hard for you to under- 
stand. 

25. " I believe I was six hours, last night, in 
the belly of hell ! Indeed, I know I was ; and I 
preached to the spirits in prison. I never knew 
until then what that passage of Scripture signifies, 
which says, * One day with the Lord is as a thou- 
sand years, and a thousand years as one day.' 
But now, by what I have seen and felt, I can tes- 
tify that, to a soul that has been in hell but one 
da/y^ it appears like a thousand years. For the 
horrors of souls in hell are so extreme, and their 
banishment from God so great, that they can not 
measure time. It is called the bottomless pit, and 
souls in it feel themselves sinking further and fur- 
ther from God ; and what still increases their tor- 



174 SHAKERS AND SHAKERISM. 

ment is, ihey can see no way out. If a man should 
live to the age of Methuselah, and go through all 
the miseries of this life, it could not be compared 
to one day in hell. When I saw the state of the 
damned, I shuddered at the awful prospect. 

26. " If you will take up your crosses against 
the work of generation, and will follow Christ 
Jesus in the regeneration, God will cleanse you 
from all unrighteousness. Men and women in this 
world can please themselves by fleshly gratifica- 
tions ; and, if they do not overcome their passions 
by the Gospel, they carry them with them into the 
world of spirits. Death does not destroy those 
passions, nor make them less powerful. But souls 
in hell feel their lustful passions rise a thousand 
times stronger in them than when in this world; 
yet they can find no way by which to gratify 
them ; therefore their lust is their torment, and it 
torments them in proportion to its rage. They 
also feel the wrath of God against that filthy 
nature, and this is still a greater torment to them. 

27. " I see, in open vision, souls in hell, under 
torment for their sins, which (were they in the 



JAMK8 WHITTAKEB. 175 

body) woald be enoagh to take away their natural 
lives. 

28, " Souls that go out of this world, who have 
not beard the Gospel, do not know God, nor where 
to find Him. I have seen them wandering about, 
trying to find God, weeping and crying until, to 
appearance, they had worn gutters in their cheeks. 
All souls will be judged by the testimony of the 
Gospel, which you now hear." 

29* About the middle of January, 1787, Father 
James, having assembled the Believers in New 
Lebanon together in the meeting-house, came in 
under great heaviness of spirit, and, with tears 
flowing copiously, said : '^ I am going to leave you. 
I feel that my work is done here, and I do not 
know that I shall ever see you again in this world ; 
but I leave those with you who are able to teach 
you the way of God. I desire that you would 
treasure up the Gospel, and make it your only 
interest. You are all the interest I have in this 
world. I have no other interest.^' 

30. He then knelt down, and wept exceedingly. 
All the assembly knelt with him. After rising, he 



176 SHAKEBB AND SHAKSSI6M. 

warned the people, in a very feeling and affecting 
address, to be faithful, and keep the way of God, 
when he was gone, saying : " We have given you 
the Gospel ; see to it that you make a good use of 
it. Do abide faithful. Those of you who abide 
faithful will be like a bud in the bloom ; but those 
who do not abide will be like a falling leaf ; and 
you will remember these words when you can not 



see me." 



31. He then addressed the elders and laborers 
among the people, and gave them a very solemn 
charge to be faithful and watch over the people for 
their protection. Said he : " Deal with the breth- 
ren and sisters as I have dealt with you.'' He 
also warned them in a very special manner con- 
cerning the youth and children, saying : "You must 
take care of the rising generation ; for, if they are 
protected, the time will come when they will be the 
flower of the people of Grod." 

32. The next morning, he set off for Enfield, in 
Connecticut, from whence he never returned. 
After tarrying a short time there, he visited the 
Believers at Harvard, Shirley, Woburn, and other 



JAMES WHirrAKBB. 177 

places, where they then resided, and returned to 
Enfield in March, where he remained, and was 
continually visited by Believers till his decease. 

33. Father James's ministry was short, but very 
active and laborious. He visited all the different 
places in the land where the Gospel had been 
planted — some of them several times. His labors 
were continually employed in strengthening the 
weak, comforting the afflicted, and purging out sin. 
It was the peculiar gift of his ministry to wean the 
affections of Believers from their natural and 
earthly ties, and prepare them for a spiritual rela- 
tion in Church order, which he foretold was at 
hand, and often spoke of it. His instructions to 
Elder Joseph Meacham and those with him, rela- 
tive to gathering, building, and establishing the 
Church in Gospel order, might with great propriety 
be likened to the instructions of David to Solomon, 
concerning the building of the temple, which was 
an eminent type of this very work. 

34. Many were the instructions, exhortations, 

and solemn warnings that Father James delivered 

in the last days of his ministry. When he came 

12 



178 6hae:e]is and shakssism. 

near the close of his life he said : " I have given 
you my life ; all I have I have given to you. If I 
ever had anything, you possess it — it is yours ; 
now see that you make a good use of it." About 
a fortnight before his decease, he said : " My body 
is under great sufferings, but I feel my soul at 
peace with God and man. I have given you the 
Gospel ; now see to it what kind of use you make 
of it. If you keep the Gospel, the Gospel will 
keep you. I have given my life for the people. 
After I am gone there will be a great increase." 

35. A little before his decease, a number of 
brethren and sisters came from New Lebanon to see 
him ; and, when about to return home, they went 
into his room to take their leave of him. On enter- 
ing his room, they all knelt down in sorrow and 
tears, and in prayer to God, feeling sensible that 
this would be the last time they should see him in 
this world. He addressed them as follows : " I 
feel thankful to see you all, and that you have 
come to see me in my sickness once more, before I 
leave the world. I feel weak in body, but comfort- 
able in my spirit ; and, whether I live or die, the 



JAMES WHITTAKEE. 179 

Gospel will increase. I have had a great desire to 
come and see you all, but I have not been able. 
But my heart has been with you; and now your 
hearts must be with me, to labor for the power of 
God — for one union. I desire you would give my 
love to the people where you go, and tell them that 
I am alive, and that I never expect to die ; for the 
sting of death is taken from me, and all fear and 
terror ; yet I expect soon to put off this earthly 
tabernacle. Farewell." 

86. When he was dying, a number of the 
brethren and sisters went to see him. On inquir- 
ing how he felt, he said : " My sufferings are ex- 
ceedingly great ; but that peace and consolation 
that I feel in the Gospel I would not exchange for 
a thousand such worlds as this." He then exhort- 
ed all to hold on, and to hold out to the end, and 
said : " If you hold out to the end, you will feel 
that peace which I feel." 

37. Thus he continued to exhort, strengthen, 
and encourage all around him till he expired, July 
20th, 1787, in the 37th year of his age. His 
funeral was attended on the following day. The 



180 8HAKEB6 AND 8HAKESISM. 

scene was very aflfecting to all the Believers, who 
viewed him as their Elder and Father, and the 
last of those faithful ministers of Christ who 
brought the Gospel of salvation to this land, and 
who had been called to stand in the Ministry. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

JOHN HOCKNELL. 

1. John Hocknell was a native of Cheshire, 
in England, a man of respectable character, and 
possessed considerable property. He formerly be- 
longed to the Methodist Society, but afterwards he 
became a zealous member of the Society under 
Jane and James Wardley, and readily embraced 
the increasing light through Mother Ann, and be- 
came a faithful Believer. 

2. He was a man of very meek deportment, and 
was greatly gifted in visions and prophecies; he 
also possessed the gift of healing. He was a great 
help to Mother Ann and her little family, in a 
temporal view, and was very zealous in the support 
of the Gospel. It was through his instrumentality 
that they were enabled to cross the ocean, and 



182 SHAKERS AND SHAKKRTSM. 

establish themselves in this land. Indeed, the 
temporal assistance which his zeal and liberality 
afforded the Society, in its infant state, was its 
principal dependence. He was a very honest, con- 
scientious, and upright man, and continued faithful 
and zealous during life. He saw the Church 
established in Gospel order, and with great joy 
saw its growing prosperity in things temporal and 
spiritual. He departed this life Feb. 27, 1799, 
aged 76 years. 



I 



CHAPTER XV. 

JOSEPH MEACHAM AND LUCY WRIGHT. 

1. Joseph Meacham and Lucy Wright were 
among the first of those in America who received 
faith in the religious principles of Shakerism. 
Upon them the leadership and government of the 
people (Shakers) devolved. Under their adminis- 
tration it was that the principles in regard to 
property and order in general were fully carried 
out and established. 

2. They gradually gathered the people from 
their scattered condition into families, having their 
property in common. Orders, rules, and regula- 
tions, in temporal and spiritual things, were framed, 
appropriate to the new relations they were then 
coming into as a body of people. Elders and 
deacons of both sexes were appointed, and set in 



184: BHAKSBS AND SHAKEBISM. 

their proper order; and a Covenant was written 
and entered into for the mutual understanding and 
protection of the members. 

3. The Society at New Lebanon was the first 
that was organized, and is the center of union to 
all the other societies. Yet the immediate duties 
of the Ministry (who are the Elders of the elders) 
extend only to the two societies of New Lebanon 
and Walervliet. The other societies are under 
the direction of Ministries appointed to preside 
over them. In mofit instances, two or three socie- 
ties constitute a bishopric, being united under the 
superintendence of the same Ministry. 

4. Joseph Meacham was born at Enfield, Conn., 
on the 22d of February, 1742, and deceased on 
the 16th of August, 1796. 

6. Lucy Wright succeeded Joseph Meacham in 
the lead of the Society. During her administra- 
tion, the several societies in the States of Ohio and 
Kentucky were established, and large accessions 
were made to the Eastern societies. 

6. She was bom in Pittsfield, Mass., February 
5th, 1760, and deceased February 7th, 1821. 



Note. — For further and fuller particulars of 
the history, doctrines, laws, orders, etc,, of the 
Society and its Founders, the reader is referred to 
the works published by the United Society, but 
more especially to the one entitled " Ohrisfs First 
and Second Appearing ^"^^ and to another entitled 
"^ Summary View of the Millennial Churchj^^ 
which can be had on application to any of the 
societies. 



STANDARD WORKS 



PU2IU8HED BT THE 



United Society of Believers, called Shakers. 



The Testimony of Christ's Second Appearing^, exem- 
plified by the Principles and Praotioe of the true Church of 
Christ. — History of the ProgressiTe Work of God, extending 
from the Creation of Man to the *' Harrest/* comprising the 
Four Great Dispensations now consummating in the Millen- 
nial Church. — Antichrist's Kingdom, or Churches, contrasted 
with the Church of Christ's Second Appearing, the Kingdom 
of the God of HeaTen. Medium 8yo ; pp. 650. Price $1 25. 

The Manifesto ; or, a Declaration of the Doctrines and Prac- 
tice of the Church of Christ. By JoHir DxncLAYY. Medium 
8yo ; pp. 486. Price $1. 

A Summary View of the Millennial Chnrch ; or. United 

Society of Belieyers, comprising the Rise, Progress, and 
Practical Order of the Society ; together with the general 
Principles of their Faith and Testimony. Medium 12mo ; 
pp. 884. Price 50 cents. 

Tests of Divine Inspiration; or, the Budimental Princi- 
ples by which True and False Rerelation, in all Eras of the 



8TANDAED WOEKS. 187 

World, can be miiformlj difloriminated. By F. W. Evaits. 
Bamphlet; medium 12mo; pp. 126. Price 18 cents. 

Three Discourses :— On the Order and Propriety of Diyine 
Inspiration and Revelation, showing the Necessity thereof, in 
all Ages, to know the Will of God ; — On the Second Appear- 
ing of Christ in the Order of the Female ; — and On a United 
Inheritance in all Things, in order to support a true Chris- 
tian Community. By Wm. Leoicard. Pamphlet ; medium 
12mo ; pp. 88. Price One Shilling. 

Brief Exposition of the Established Principles and Regula- 
tions of the United Society of Believers. Pamphlet ; medium 
12mo ; pp. 38. Price 6 cents. 

A Short Treatise on the Second Appearing of Christ, in and 
through the Order of the Female. By F. W. Evans. 
Pamphlet ; medium 12mo ; pp. 24. Price 6 cents. 

Plain Evidences) by which the True Church of Christ may 
be known and distinguished from all others. Extracted from 
the " Manifesto." Pamphlet ; medium 12mo ; pp. 120. 
Price One Shilling. 



POST-OFFICE ADDRESSES 

or THE 

AGENTS FOR RELIGIOUS INFORMATION 

OF THE 

SOCIETIES OF SHAKERS. 



New LsBANOir, N. Y.Richard Bushnell, or Fuedebick 

W. Evans, New Lebanon, Columbia 
Co., N. Y., Shaker Village. 

Wateryuet, N. Y. . .IssACHAB Bates, Albany, N. Y., Shaker 

Box. 

Grovei<axd Danikl Drter. Mount Morris, Liy- 

ingston Co , N. Y. , Shaker Box. 

Hancocb: William Williams, West Pittefield, 

Berkshire Co., Mass., Shaker Box. 

Tyringham Albert Battles, South Lee, Berk- 
shire Co., Mass., Shaker Box. 

Harvard Daniel Mtrick, South Qroton, Mid- 
dlesex Co., Mass., Shaker Box. 

Shirley William Weatherbee, Shirley Vil- 
lage, Middlesex Co , Mass., Shaker 
Box. 

Enfield, Conn Philip Burling ame, Thompsonville» 

Conn., Shaker Box. 



P08T-OFFIOE ADDEE8BE8. 189 

Enfield, N. H Jesse Danford, North Enfield, Graf- 
ton Co., N. H. 

Canterbxtby Nehemiah TRUUi, Shaker Village, 

Merrimac Co., N. H. 

Axfred John Vance, Alfred, York Co., Me., 

Shaker Box. 

New Gloucester. . .Isaiah Wentworth, or Otis Saw- 
yer, West Gloucester, Cumberland 
Co., Me., Shaker Box. 

Union Village, Ohio. George Rubush, Union Village (near 

Lebanon), Warren Co., Ohio., Shak- 
er Box. 

Watervliet, Ohio.. . .Ebenezer Rice, Dayton, Montgom- 
ery Co., Ohio, Shaker Box. 

White Water Henry B. Bear, Preston, Hamilton 

Co., Ohio, Shaker Box. 

Pleasant Hill George Bunion, Pleasant Hill, Mer- 
cer Co., Ky. 

South Union John R. E ades, South Union, Logan 

Co., Ky. 

North Union James S. Prescott, Cleaveland, Cuya- 
hoga Co., Ohio, Shaker Box 



NOT TO BE REMOVED 

FROM TRF TTRRARV 




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